Appendix 4: Benefits Estimation Data

A. Average Visits by Adults per Facility

The following table shows the estimated annual visits made by an average adult. Industry-specific data was found for many facilities (see following table for source and calculation notes). For other facilities, the number of visits was estimated using the methodology described in Chapter 4, Section 4.2.1.

Facility Group

Annual visits made by average US adult

Inns

1.72

Hotels

2.53

Motels

2.27

Restaurants

198.23

Motion Picture House

4.44

Theatre / Concert Hall

1.25

Stadiums

0.57

Auditoriums

0.61

Convention centers

0.16

Single level stores

75.29

Shopping malls

10.00

Indoor Service Establishments

98.11

Offices of health care providers

3.39

Hospitals

0.29

Nursing homes

2.03

Terminal (private airports)

0.00

Depots

0.09

Museums, historical sites & libraries

6.79

Parks or zoos

0.36

Amusement parks

1.03

Nursery schools - Daycare

12.70

Elementary private schools

2.09

Secondary Private Schools

0.66

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

3.55

Ski facilities

0.18

Homeless Shelter

0.41

Food banks

0.79

Social service establishments

3.41

Exercise facilities

4.59

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

1.14

Bowling alleys

0.94

Golf courses (private with public access)

0.68

Golf courses (private only)

0.27

Miniature golf courses

0.94

Recreational boating facilities

0.15

Fishing piers and platforms

0.02

Shooting facilities

0.10

Office buildings

0.25

Elementary public schools

14.03

Secondary public schools

18.45

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

0.05

Public housing

0.35

State and local judicial facilities (courthouses)

0.01

State and local detention facilities (jails)

0.05

State and local correctional facilities (prisons)

3.74

Parking garages

6.35

Self service storage facilities

0.17

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

0.00

Stadiums (public)

1.71

Auditoriums (public)

0.04

Convention centers (public)

0.24

Hospitals (public)

0.07

Nursing homes (public)

0.20

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

13.81

Parks or zoos (public)

5.54

Homeless Shelter (public)

0.06

Exercise facilities (public)

0.19

Social service establishments (public)

1.46

Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public)

0.21

Miniature golf courses (public)

0.10

Recreational boating facilities (public)

0.23

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

0.02

Office buildings (public)

0.79

Parking garages (public)

0.06

Golf courses (public)

0.19

Restaurants (public)

0.01

Amusement parks (public)

0.02

For those facilities for which industry-specific data on total or average visits was found, the following table details the source and calculations behind the estimates for the average number of visits by an adult.

US Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2007, table 1229

International Council Of Shopping Centers, “2003 Mall Shopping Patterns” and HDR

Center for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, “National Nursing Home Survey” (NNHS)

Federal Aviation Administration, All Enplanements for General Aviation: 2005.

US Department of Transportation, “Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey” (bus trips) and websites of the Leatherstocking Historical Railway, The Adirondack Railway Preservation Society, Grand Canyon Railway, Delaware and Ulster Railways, Strasburg Railroad, Catskill Mountain Rail Rd (private railways)

Zoos: number of zoos from the American Zoological Society and total visits from the American Association of Museums. Parks: The National Association of State Park Directors

Number of children preschoolers and children under 5: U.S. Census Bureau “Who’s Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Spring 1999;” Detailed Tables (PPL-168)

HDR estimates, based on Michael Thomas and Nicholas Stratis, “Assessing the Economic Impacts and Value of Florida’s Public Piers and Boat Ramps” and conversation with the American Sportfishing Association

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2003–2004 Private School Universe Survey".

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2003–2004 Private School Universe Survey".

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, “Digest of Education Statistics: 2005 Edition”

US Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2007, table 1229

Facility Type Source Notes
Inns

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor – to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities <75 rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Hotels

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor - to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities 150+ rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Motels

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor - to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities 75-150 rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Restaurants

HDR estimates and the National Restaurant Association, "Meal Consumption Behavior"

Adjusted NRA data for number of meals commercially prepared to estimate meals by adults and restaurants; reflected in market price

Motion Picture House

Adjusted by population 18 and over

Multi-level stores

Annualized quarterly visits and adjusted to estimate multi-level facilities only

Offices of health care providers

Catharine W. Burt, et all, “Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005,” Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

For population 15+ years

Hospitals

Catharine W. Burt, et all, “Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005,” Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

Allocated total visits to reflect proportion of hospital that are private (calculated from  American Hospital Association, “Fast Facts”); For population 15+ years

Nursing homes

Adjusted beds by occupancy rate

Terminal

Enplanments at general aviation depots and fields

Depot

Estimated long distance bus trips (assumed one quarter of total) and visits to private railways

Parks or zoos

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the US

Amusement parks

“Amusement Park and Attractions Industry Statistics, “International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, for 2006.

Number of person trips, adjusted for adults

Nursery schools/Day Care

Assumed 5 days a week for 49 weeks a year.

Fishing piers and platforms

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the US

Elementary private schools

Number of students time average school year

Secondary Private Schools

Number of students time average school year

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

Assumed that full-time students (both living on campus and living off-campus) averaged vests 6 days a week and part-time students averaged 3 visits a week; all for 34 weeks a year.

Ski facilities

Adjusted by population 18 and over

Homeless Shelter

Department of Housing and Urban Development, “The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress,” February 2007

Averaged three one-day estimates in same year of number of people in shelters; assumed 365 days, adjusted for adults; allocate total visits to reflect percentage of facilities that are private (from same report)

Food banks

US Department of Agriculture, "The Emergency Food System" vol II , table 3.2 (page 49) and Executive Summary, page iv

adjusted for adult population

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for details

Stadiums (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Auditoriums (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Convention centers (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Hospitals (public)

Catharine W. Burt, et all, “Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005,” Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

Allocated total visits to reflect proportion of hospital that are public (calculated from  American Hospital Association, “Fast Facts”); For population 15+ years

Nursing homes (public)

Center for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, “National Nursing Home Survey” (NNHS)

Adjusted beds by occupancy rate

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Parks or zoos (public)

American Association of Museums, 2006 Museum Financial Information survey

Used estimates for zoos and historical sites (latter as proxy)

Homeless Shelter (public)

Department of Housing and Urban Development, “The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress,” February 2007

Averaged three one-day estimates in same year of number of people in shelters; assumed 365 days, adjusted for adults; allocate total visits to reflect percentage of facilities that are private (from same report)

Exercise facilities (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Social service establishments (public)

Facilities (service) estimated from Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Miniature golf courses (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Recreational boating facilities (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

HDR estimates, based on Michael Thomas and Nicholas Stratis, “Assessing the Economic Impacts and Value of Florida’s Public Piers and Boat Ramps” and conversation with the American Sportfishing Association.

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the US

Office buildings (public)

Facilities (administrative) estimated from Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Parking garages (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Golf courses (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Restaurants (public)

HDR estimates and the National Restaurant Association, "Meal Consumption Behavior"

Adjusted NRA data for number of meals commercially prepared to estimate meals by adults and restaurants; reflected in market price

Amusement parks (public)

 

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

NB: All data was adjusted to 2007. When adjusted for the adult population, the percent of the US population 18 years of age and older was used to make the adjustment.

B. Total US Population

The 2006 and 2007 population estimates by age group are based on the US Census projections of population age groups for July 1, 2005 (released March 2004). To estimate the population in 2007, it is assumed the population grows at a 1% annual rate.

The visits made to school facilities are based on the age group that attends the specific school facility group. The number of visits due to new independent access at recreational facilities is based on the total US population 18 years and older, adjusted for disability type.

US Census Projections of the Population by Selected Age Groups Census Projections July 1, 2005 Age group,
% of Total
HDR Projections For July 1, 2006 HDR Projections
For July 1, 2007

Total US Population

295,507,134

100%

298,462,205

301,446,827

.Under 5 years

20,495,480

7%

20,700,435

20,907,439

.5 to 13 years

35,968,115

12%

36,327,796

36,691,074

.14 to 17 years

17,175,462

6%

17,347,217

17,520,689

.18 to 24 years

29,156,112

10%

29,447,673

29,742,150

.25 to 44 years

83,203,691

28%

84,035,728

84,876,085

.45 to 64 years

72,812,370

25%

73,540,494

74,275,899

.65 years and over

36,695,904

12%

37,062,863

37,433,492

Source: US Census Bureau and HDR Estimates

C. Total Sales per Facility

This table shows total sales receipts per facility group, as well as the applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code and description as defined in 2002 US Economic Census.

Facility Group Name NAICS Code Sales Receipts / Revenues in 2007 dollars Data Year NAICS Code Definition / Source
Inns

7211

$2,938,455,605

2002

Traveler Accommodation (less than 10 - 24 guestrooms)
Hotels

7211

$107,770,939,419

2002

Traveler Accommodation (25-99 guestrooms)
Motels

7211

$6,684,148,336

2002

Traveler Accommodation (100+ guestrooms)
Restaurant / Bar, other establishments serving food or drink

722

$360,323,736,335

2002

Food Services and Drinking Places
Motion Picture House

512131

$12,029,159,098

 

Motion Picture Theater
Theatre / Concert Hall

7111

$12,179,271,702

2002

Performing Arts Companies
Stadiums

7112

$25,015,683,620

2002

NAICS 7112: Spectator Sports multiplied by the estimate of privately owned stadiums.
In June 2000, it was reported that 75% of stadiums were publicly owned. (Coates and Humphreys, “The Stadium Gambit and Local Economic Development.”)
Auditorium, lecture hall, other place of public gathering

71131

$5,958,958,163

2002

Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events with Facilities
Convention Center

561920

$9,598,759,157

2002

Convention and trade show organizers multiplied by the estimate from Tradeshow Week Major Exhibit Hall Directory of privately owned convention centers, 38%.
Bakery / Grocery Store

445

$512,280,311,958

2002

Food and Beverage Stores
Clothing Store

448

$188,271,733,658

2002

Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores
Hardware Store

444

$276,420,618,060

2002

Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers
Motor vehicle & parts dealers

441

$898,794,593,962

2002

Motor vehicle & parts dealers
Furniture & home furnishings stores

442

$102,933,375,562

2002

Furniture & home furnishings stores
Electronics & appliance stores

443

$92,186,246,068

2002

Electronics & appliance stores
Sporting goods, hobby and music stores

451

$82,078,573,600

2002

Sporting goods, hobby and music stores
General merchandise stores

452

$499,143,984,256

2002

General merchandise stores
Miscellaneous store retailers

453

$101,809,503,613

2002

Miscellaneous store retailers
Laundromats, Dry Cleaner, Shoe Repair, Funeral Parlor, Beauty Shop / Barber Shop

812

$120,347,500,485

2002

Personal and Laundry Services (less parking garages, see Parking Garage facility group)
Pharmacy

446

$201,959,335,625

2002

Health and Personal Care Stores
Banks / Insurance

522, 523, 524, 525

$3,160,489,911,132

2002

Finance and Insurance
Professional, Scientific, and Technical Svcs

541

$994,197,132,377

2002

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Travel Services

5615

$28,627,769,776

2002

Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services
Gas Stations

447

$279,313,698,059

2002

Gasoline Stations
Professional Offices of healthcare providers

621

$547,792,704,956

2002

Ambulatory health care services
Hospitals

622

$560,679,037,440

2002

Hospitals
Nursing and Residential Facilities

623

$142,507,662,247

2002

Nursing and Residential Care Facilities
Museums, historical sites, & similar institutions

71211

$6,623,227,487

2002

Museums
Library

 

 

2006

American Library Association
Zoos

71213

$2,005,710,768

2002

Zoos and Botanical Gardens
Parks

71219

$40,415,165

2002

Nature parks & similar institutions
Amusement Park

7131

$9,163,966,587

2002

Amusement Parks
Nursery schools/Day Care

6244

$24,408,648,952

2002

Child Day Care Services
Ski facilities

71392

$2,019,373,676

2002

Ski facilities
Homeless Shelter

62422

$6,506,300,713

2002

Community Housing Services
Emergency Relief services

62423

$5,712,713,042

2002

Emergency & other relief services
Food banks

62421

$3,482,930,368

2002

Community food services
Family services

6241

$50,052,474,286

2002

Individual and family services
Vocational Rehab services

6243

$12,367,370,709

2002

Vocational rehabilitation services
Fitness & Recreational Sports Ctrs & Skiing Facilities

71394

$16,802,726,914

2002

Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers & Skiing Facilities
Aquatic centers / swimming pools

61162

$2,790,676,020

2002

Sports and recreational instruction
Bowling Alley

71395

$3,447,148,058

2002

Bowling Centers
Golf Course (semi-private: paid membership, but public access)

71391

$3,757,631,378

2002

Golf Courses and Country Clubs
Miniature Golf Course

7139908

$1,145,758,746

 

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries
Recreational Boating Facility

71393

$3,757,631,378

2002

Marinas
 

 

 

 

 
Other Amusement & Recreational Svcs:

7139908

$3,437,620,000

2002

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries
Fishing Pier or Platform

7139908

$1,145,758,746

 

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries
Shooting Facility

7139908

$1,145,758,746

 

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries
Parking garages

81293

$7,745,052,297.83

2002

Parking lots & garages
Self service storage facilities

53113

$4,120,221,420

2002

Lessors of miniwarehouses & self-storage units

Source (unless otherwise noted): 2002 US Economic Census

D. Consumer Price Index

The percentage change of the consumer price index (CPI) is applied to the 2002 Economic Census data to estimate the total sales receipts for 2007.

CPI:Annual Percentage Change

Year

% Change

2002

1.6%

2003

2.3%

2004

2.7%

2005

3.4%

2006

3.2%

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor

E. Percentage of Disability, by Type

The following table shows the percentage of the total US population 15 years and older that reported a specific type of disability.

Disability Type

Percent of Total US Population 15 Years and older
Seeing/Hearing/Speaking

Difficulty seeing words/letters

3.5%

Difficulty hearing conversation

3.5%

Difficulty with speech

1.2%

Walking/Using Stairs

Total with a disability

11.4%

Used a wheelchair or similar device

1.2%

Selected Physical Tasks (Upper body limitation)

Total with a disability

8.2%

Source: US Census Bureau, Survey of Income Program Participation, 2002.

F. Income Adjustment Factors by Facility

Facilities either have a 60%, 100%, or 140% adjustment to the estimate of the base number of visit to demonstrate the homogeneity of its visitors’ income and the impact of the lower average income for persons with disabilities on use of various facilities.

Facility Group

Income Adjustment

Inns

60%

Hotels

60%

Motels

100%

Restaurants

60%

Motion Picture House

60%

Theatre / Concert Hall

60%

Stadiums

60%

Auditoriums

60%

Convention centers

60%

Single level stores

60%

Shopping malls

60%

Indoor Service Establishments

60%

Offices of health care providers

140%

Hospitals

140%

Nursing homes

140%

Terminal (private airports)

60%

Depots

60%

Museums, historical sites & libraries

60%

Parks or zoos

60%

Amusement parks

60%

Nursery schools - Daycare

60%

Elementary private schools

140%

Secondary Private Schools

60%

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

60%

Ski facilities

60%

Homeless Shelter

140%

Food banks

140%

Social service establishments

100%

Exercise facilities

60%

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

60%

Bowling alleys

60%

Golf courses (private with public access)

60%

Golf courses (private only)

60%

Miniature golf courses

60%

Recreational boating facilities

60%

Fishing piers and platforms

60%

Shooting facilities

60%

Office buildings

100%

Elementary public schools

100%

Secondary public schools

100%

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

100%

Public housing

140%

State and local judicial facilities (courthouses)

100%

State and local detention facilities (jails)

100%

State and local correctional facilities (prisons)

100%

Parking garages

60%

Self service storage facilities

60%

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

60%

Stadiums (public)

60%

Auditoriums (public)

60%

Convention centers (public)

60%

Offices of health care providers (public)

140%

Hospitals (public)

100%

Nursing homes (public)

140%

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

60%

Parks or zoos (public)

60%

Homeless Shelter (public)

140%

Exercise facilities (public)

60%

Social service establishments (public)

100%

Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public)

60%

Miniature golf courses (public)

60%

Recreational boating facilities (public)

60%

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

60%

Office buildings (public)

100%

Parking garages (public)

60%

Golf courses (public)

60%

Restaurants (public)

60%

Amusement parks (public)

60%

Source: HDR Estimates

G. Time Use Survey

The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes an annual American Time Use Survey (ATUS), where a sample of the population keeps a diary of time spent doing daily activities. The conditional responses shown in the chart below contributed to the estimates of Facility Use and Travel time, components of the generalized use cost of a facility.

2005 Bureau of Labor Statistics American Time use Survey Mean Response (hours)

The following table lists the facilities included in the use premium benefits due to the requirements that affect the primary use of a visit, as listed in the second column. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) description and corresponding code that matches each facilities’ primary function is listed in the third and fourth columns. The average time spent in these activities is listed in the last column.

Facility Reason for using facility as related to requirements ATUS Description ATUS code Time (hrs)
Inns bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010201

0.9

Hotels bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010202

0.9

Motels bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010203

0.9

Motion Picture House wheelchair space, listening watching a movie 120403

2.3

Theatre / Concert Hall wheelchair space, listening attending performing arts 120401

2.3

Stadiums wheelchair space, listening watching baseball, basketball, football, and soccer Average of 130203, 130203, 130213, 130224

2.6

Auditoriums wheelchair space, listening attending performing arts 120401

2.3

Convention centers wheelchair space, listening taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure 060101

7.0

Museums, historical sites & libraries wheelchair space, listening attending a museum 120402

2.8

Parks or zoos play, fishing average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children, and fishing Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 130112

6.3

Amusement parks wheelchair space, listening, play average time spent playing sports (and not sports) with household children plus arts and entertainment not elsewhere classified, assuming 1 show is watched Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 120499

0.9

Secondary Private Schools wheelchair space, listening taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure 060101

5.2

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools wheelchair space, listening, bathrooms, kitchen taking a class, and for on-campus residents only (1/2 of total visitors): washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food prep and kitchen clean up 060102, 01020, 020201, and 020203

7.0

Homeless Shelter bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010203

0.9

Exercise facilities exercise using cardiovascular equipment and weightlifting/ strength training 130128 and 130133

1.4

Miniature golf courses minigolf playing golf, assuming minigolf is 1/2 time golf game, and there are 4 players 130114

0.4

Fishing piers and platforms fishing fishing 130112

4.9

Elementary public schools play average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children Average of 030103 and 030105

1.4

Secondary public schools wheelchair space, listening taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure 060101

5.2

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools wheelchair space, listening, bathrooms, kitchen taking a class, and for on-campus residents only (1/2 of total visitors): washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food prep and kitchen clean up 060102, 01020, 020201, and 020203

7.0

Public housing bathroom, kitchen washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food and drink prep, and kitchen clean up 010201, 020201, and 020203

2.3

State and local detention facilities (jails) bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010203

0.9

State and local correctional facilities (prisons) bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 010203

0.9

Theatre / Concert Halls (public) wheelchair space, listening attending performing arts 120401

2.3

Stadiums (public) wheelchair space, listening watching baseball, basketball, football, and soccer Average of 130203, 130203, 130213, 130224

2.6

Auditoriums (public) wheelchair space, listening attending performing arts 120401

2.3

Convention centers (public) wheelchair space, listening taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure 060101

7.0

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public) wheelchair space, listening attending a museum 120402

2.8

Parks or zoos (public) play, fishing average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children, and fishing Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 130112

6.3

Homeless Shelter (public) bathroom washing, dressing and grooming oneself 10201

0.9

Exercise facilities (public) exercise using cardiovascular equipment and weightlifting/ strength training 130128 and 130133

1.4

Miniature golf courses (public) minigolf playing golf, assuming minigolf is 1/2 time golf game, and there are 4 players 130114

0.4

Fishing piers and platforms (public) fishing fishing 130112

4.9

Amusement parks (public) wheelchair space, listening, play average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children plus arts and entertainment not elsewhere classified, assuming 1 show is watched Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 120499

0.9

H. Total Access Time per Facility

The graph below shows the averages of the preliminary RAP estimates for the most likely total access time per facility. The panelist responses match a list of facilities that was later expanded to define costs per facility. It was assumed that facilities that were originally grouped into these facility groups had equal access times.

Preliminary RAP estimates estimates for the most likely total access time per facility

The following table presents the data of the average, minimum, maximum and median of the RAP panelist estimates of access time per facility. The final columns are the actual input used, the averages of the inputs.

SUMMARY OF PANEL INPUTS
Total Accsss Time Estimates in Hours
Facility  AVG.
Low
AVG.
High
AVG.
Most Likely
Min
Low
Min
High
Min
Most Likely
Max
Low
Max
High
Max
Most Likely
Median
Low
Median
High
Median
Most Likely
In Use
Low
In Use
High
In Use
Most Likely
Inns, Hotels, Motels

0.38

0.91

0.58

0.33

0.67

0.33

0.67

1.50

0.83

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.38

0.91

0.58

Restaurants

0.19

0.40

0.29

0.17

0.25

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.19

0.40

0.29

Motion picture houses

0.28

0.54

0.41

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.50

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.28

0.54

0.41

Stadiums

0.43

0.87

0.61

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.67

1.50

0.75

0.33

0.83

0.67

0.43

0.87

0.61

Auditoriums

0.36

0.70

0.52

0.25

0.67

0.50

0.67

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.36

0.70

0.52

Convention centers

0.36

0.76

0.56

0.08

0.33

0.50

0.67

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.36

0.76

0.56

Single level stores

0.10

0.29

0.24

0.08

0.25

0.08

0.17

0.42

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.10

0.29

0.24

Multi-level stores

0.31

0.68

0.47

0.17

0.25

0.25

0.67

1.17

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.68

0.47

Indoor Service Establishments

0.13

0.33

0.22

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.13

0.33

0.22

Terminal, depot or other station

0.15

0.53

0.37

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.08

0.50

0.33

0.15

0.53

0.37

Offices of health care providers

0.14

0.36

0.24

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.14

0.36

0.24

Hospitals and nursing homes

0.16

0.43

0.29

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.16

0.43

0.29

Museums

0.29

0.66

0.50

0.08

0.25

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.29

0.66

0.50

Parks or zoos

0.39

1.30

0.89

0.17

0.50

0.50

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.39

1.30

0.89

Amusement parks

0.48

1.35

0.96

0.33

0.67

0.67

0.50

1.50

1.50

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.48

1.35

0.96

Social service centers

0.16

0.36

0.25

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.16

0.36

0.25

Homeless shelters

0.31

0.61

0.46

0.08

0.17

0.17

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.61

0.46

Exercise facilities

0.33

0.65

0.49

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

0.83

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.65

0.49

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

0.20

0.48

0.32

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.20

0.48

0.32

Bowling alleys

0.17

0.35

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.35

0.25

Golf courses

0.34

0.70

0.48

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.34

0.70

0.48

Recreational boating facilities

0.31

0.67

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.67

0.47

Fishing piers and platforms

0.33

0.70

0.49

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.83

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.70

0.49

Miniature golf courses

0.26

0.54

0.40

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.26

0.54

0.40

Shooting facilities

0.31

0.63

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.63

0.47

Day care centers & elementary private schools

0.31

0.63

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.63

0.47

Secondary private schools

0.31

0.65

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.83

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.65

0.47

Undergraduate & postgraduate private schools

0.35

0.78

0.56

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.50

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.35

0.78

0.56

Public schools

0.29

0.63

0.48

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.29

0.63

0.48

Office buildings

0.46

0.93

0.69

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.46

0.93

0.69

State and local government housing

0.46

0.93

0.69

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.46

0.93

0.69

State and local judicial facilities

0.44

0.96

0.71

0.17

0.67

0.50

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.44

0.96

0.71

State and local detention facilities

0.53

1.11

0.76

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.75

1.50

0.83

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.53

1.11

0.76

State and local correctional facilities

0.53

1.11

0.76

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.75

1.50

0.83

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.53

1.11

0.76

I. Market Price by Facility

The following table shows the estimated market price by facility group.

Facility Group Market Price
Inns $75.00
Hotels $150.00
Motels $45.00
Restaurants $8.00
Motion Picture House $12.00
Theatre / Concert Hall $40.00
Stadiums $45.00
Auditoriums $40.00
Convention centers $100.00
Single level stores $150.00
Shopping malls $80.00
Indoor Service Establishments $225.00
Offices of health care providers $400.00
Hospitals $500.00
Nursing homes $240.00
Terminal (private airports) $100.00
Depots $5.00
Museums, historical sites & libraries $4.00
Parks or zoos $4.00
Amusement parks $60.00
Nursery schools - Daycare $50.00
Elementary private schools $55.00
Secondary Private Schools $55.00
Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools $166.67
Ski facilities $50.00
Homeless Shelter $50.00
Food banks $25.00
Social service establishments $75.00
Exercise facilities $15.00
Aquatic centers / swimming pools $10.00
Bowling alleys $15.00
Golf courses (private with public access) $80.00
Golf courses (private only) $100.00
Miniature golf courses $5.00
Recreational boating facilities $100.00
Fishing piers and platforms $30.00
Shooting facilities $20.00
Office buildings $10.00
Elementary public schools $55.56
Secondary public schools $55.56
Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools $83.33
Public housing $10.00
State and local judicial facilities (courthouses) $2.00
State and local detention facilities (jails) $0.00
State and local correctional facilities (prisons) $0.00
Parking garages $5.00
Self service storage facilities $100.00
Theatre / Concert Halls (public) $40.00
Stadiums (public) $45.00
Auditoriums (public) $40.00
Convention centers (public) $100.00
Offices of health care providers (public) $400.00
Hospitals (public) $500.00
Nursing homes (public) $240.00
Museums, historical sites & libraries (public) $4.00
Parks or zoos (public) $4.00
Homeless Shelter (public) $50.00
Exercise facilities (public) $15.00
Social service establishments (public) $75.00
Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public) $10.00
Miniature golf courses (public) $5.00
Recreational boating facilities (public) $100.00
Fishing piers and platforms (public) $30.00
Office buildings (public) $10.00
Parking garages (public) $5.00
Golf courses (public) $80.00
Restaurants (public) $8.00
Amusement parks (public) $60.00

Source: HDR estimates

J. Value of Time

Base Value of Times Per Facility

The value of time is estimated per facility group are based on Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor; Average Hourly Earnings of Production Workers for 2006 of the total private sector, not seasonally adjusted. This is reported as $16.76 an hour.

Facility Group Value of time
Inns

$8.50

Hotels

$8.50

Motels

$8.50

Restaurants

$8.50

Motion Picture House

$4.25

Theatre / Concert Hall

$4.25

Stadiums

$4.25

Auditoriums

$4.25

Convention centers

$8.50

Single level stores

$4.25

Shopping malls

$4.25

Indoor Service Establishments

$4.25

Offices of health care providers

$8.50

Hospitals

$4.25

Nursing homes

$4.25

Terminal (private airports)

$8.50

Depots

$8.50

Museums, historical sites & libraries

$4.25

Parks or zoos

$4.25

Amusement parks

$4.25

Nursery schools - Daycare

$0.85

Elementary private schools

$0.85

Secondary Private Schools

$0.85

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

$8.50

Ski facilities

$4.25

Homeless Shelter

$4.25

Food banks

$4.25

Social service establishments

$4.25

Exercise facilities

$4.25

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

$4.25

Bowling alleys

$4.25

Golf courses (private with public access)

$4.25

Golf courses (private only)

$4.25

Miniature golf courses

$4.25

Recreational boating facilities

$4.25

Fishing piers and platforms

$4.25

Shooting facilities

$4.25

Office buildings

$8.50

Elementary public schools

$0.85

Secondary public schools

$0.85

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

$8.50

Public housing

$8.50

State and local judicial facilities (courthouses)

$8.50

State and local detention facilities (jails)

$0.10

State and local correctional facilities (prisons)

$0.10

Parking garages

$8.50

Self service storage facilities

$8.50

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

$4.25

Stadiums (public)

$4.25

Auditoriums (public)

$4.25

Convention centers (public)

$8.50

Offices of health care providers (public)

$8.50

Hospitals (public)

$4.25

Nursing homes (public)

$4.25

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

$4.25

Parks or zoos (public)

$4.25

Homeless Shelter (public)

$4.25

Exercise facilities (public)

$4.25

Social service establishments (public)

$4.25

Swimming pools (public)

$4.25

Miniature golf courses (public)

$4.25

Recreational boating facilities (public)

$4.25

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

$4.25

Office buildings (public)

$8.50

Parking garages (public)

$8.50

Golf courses (public)

$4.25

Restaurants (public)

$8.50

Amusement parks (public)

$4.25

Time Premiums

The basis for value of time premiums is developed independent literature from the transportation field, in which extensive research has been conducted on the value people place on quicker/easier access from one place to another as well as some analysis on the value of improved comfort during that travel experience. We have used commonly-used estimates from this literature to develop premiums for both access and use time. Specifically:

  1. Change in Access Time: An increased quality of experience from access time is based on the difference between walking and traveling in a segregated (accessible) vehicle. This serves as a proxy for valuing the improved ability to access a facility and its amenities.

    In 2004, Marcus von Wartburg and W.G. Waters reviewed current literature on the value of time savings and concluded that weighting walking time at twice the value of in-vehicle travel time was "the common convention in many jurisdictions and "is consistent with recent evidence."[1] Indeed, the Federal Transportation Administration issued official guidance in 1997 for evaluating the costs and benefits of transit projects stating that access time should be valued at twice the rate for local personal travel.[2]

  2. Value of Use Time: The premium associated with sitting compared to standing.

    While there appears to be much less research on the quality of the travel experience (outside of research on congestion discomfort), two authors have explicitly presented estimates that can be used as proxies. William Waters presents data that the difference between the value of time sitting versus standing is 20% of the prevailing wage rate. An older study (P.B. Goodwin) presents average premiums of 50% for sitting versus standing in either a public or segregated vehicle. This analysis uses an average of the results from these two studies or 35%.

Recommended Values for Travel Time for Seated and Standing Transit Passengers

Activity Value of time relative to prevailing wage rate
Adult Transit Passenger -- seated 50%
Adult Transit Passenger -- standing 70%

Source: William Waters, The Value of Times Savings for the Economic Valuation of Highway Investments in British Columbia, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1992 as discussed in Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis – Travel Time Costs, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, revised August 10, 2007.

Value of time Premiums Compared to Time Sitting in a Moving Vehicle (Sitting in Public Vehicle Time = 1)

Travel Activity Range of Value of Time Premiums Mean Premium
Traveling in a Public Vehicle Sitting down 1 1
Traveling in a Public Vehicle Standing up 1.5 1.5
Traveling in a Segregated Vehicle Sitting down 1.25 1.25
Traveling in a Segregated Vehicle Standing up 1.87 1.87

Source: Adapted from P.B. Goodwin, Human Effort and the Value of Travel Time, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, January 1976.

K. Description of Benefits by Requirement

The following table describes the impact of the requirement in terms of time change and also describes the number of expected uses per hour or visit for each requirement in terms of the element it affects. The highlighted column defines the type of disability targeted by the requirement.

Requirement Type of Disability Description of benefit/cost per use of an element at a facility Expected number of uses per hour or per visit (given conditions related to requirement)
1- Public entrances Ambulatory Time change due to the revision of the scoping requirement Expected number of trips made to and from the public entrance
2- Maneuvering clearance or standby power for automatic doors Ambulatory Time saving in using automatic doors rather than using an inaccessible door; or waiting for a person to provide assistance Expected number of times entering building with automatic doors
3- Automatic door break-out openings Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible openings without assistance are available if automatic doors fail Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility in the event of an emergency
4- Thresholds at doorways Ambulatory Time savings in traveling over lower threshold time Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility
5- Door and gate surfaces Ambulatory Time saving in opening door and not creating a trap or pinch point from uneven surfaces 10 inches above the bottom of the door; assumes that it is the time to overcome a trap or pinch point Expected number of uses per hour of traveling through a door or gate; comparable to bathroom trips per hour
6- Location of accessible routes Ambulatory Time saving in using an accessible route in general circulation paths compared to more distant paths: assuming the route was once further away and now it is closer; additional time to go to destination; depends on size of facility Expected number of trips made to and from destination
7- Common use circulation paths in employee work areas Ambulatory (employees only) Time saving of greater access in employee work areas: quantify existing employees but not potential increase in employees due to new access Expected number of trips made in common use circulation paths
8- Accessible means of egress Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible means of egress as defined by IBC; assumed to be similar to public entrances. Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility
9 &10- Stairs Ambulatory Time saving in using stairs with technical requirements including treads and risers rather than going more slowly or waiting for assistance Expected number of times using stairs per hour
11- Handrails along walkways Ambulatory Time savings when using handrails along walkways rather than going more slowly or waiting for assistance Expected number of times using handrails along walkways per hour
12- Handrails Ambulatory Time changes when using handrails with different accessibility features Expected number of trips made to and from main destination of facility
13- Accessible routes from site arrival points within sites Ambulatory Time increase in moving around a facility in a car (including waiting for a car) or traveling independently more cautiously or less conveniently compared to having accessible buildings or elements connected through accessible routes Expected number of trips made to and from sites within a facility visit
14- Standby power for lifts Ambulatory Time saving in using platform lift rather than requiring assistance or using circuitous route. Expected use of platform lift in case of power outage
15- Power operated doors for platform lifts Ambulatory Time saving in using a power operated door independently that would close more securely than a manually closed door Expected number of uses of a platform lift
16- Alterations to existing elevators Seeing, Hearing and Wheelchair Time saving in being able to take any elevator compared to waiting for one accessible elevator and not knowing whether the accessible had answered the call Expected number of elevator uses per hour
17- Platform lifts in hotel guest rooms and dwelling units Ambulatory Time increase in using platform lift instead of an elevator Expected number of uses per hour of a platform lift when staying or residing in a facility
18- Limited Use/Limited Application (LULA) and private residence elevators Ambulatory Time increase in using LULA instead of regular elevator Expected number of uses per hour of an elevator
19- Van accessible parking spaces Wheelchair only Waiting time decrease for a van user to circle the lot, park further away or wait for a driver. Expected number of trips made to and from parking space
20 & 21- Valet parking and mechanical access parking garages Ambulatory Time saving in having an accessible loading zone at valet parking and mechanical access parking garages compared to using another accessible entrance to facility not at loading zone (assumes that main difference is the need to go to a different parking garage or drop off point, and then wait) Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility
22- Direct access entrances from parking structures Ambulatory Time saving in more accessible facility entrance options; waiting for a space near the accessible entrance or waiting for driver if dropped off Expected number of trips made to and from a parking structure
23- Passenger loading zones Ambulatory Waiting time decrease for an accessible passenger loading zone in every continuous 100 linear feet of loading zone space rather than at least one accessible passenger loading zone Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility
24- Parking spaces Ambulatory Time savings in using the lot's accessible loading zone rather than locating an accessible parking space or loading zone elsewhere within the site Expected number of trips made to and from the accessible loading zone
25- Parking spaces (signs) Ambulatory Waiting time increase for parking spots to become open where accessible spaces are not reserved for use by persons with disabilities Expected number of trips made to and from a parking space
26- Passenger loading zones at medical care and long-term facilities Ambulatory Time increase of walking more carefully in a passenger loading zone during inclement weather Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility during inclement weather
27- Ambulatory accessible toilet compartments Ambulatory Waiting time decrease for a toilet compartment in the men's bathroom Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
28- Water closet clearance in toilet rooms Ambulatory Time saving in having approximately 9 square feet to move around within a toilet room; similar to requirement #30 Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
29- Shower spray controls Wheelchair and upper body limitation Time saving in turning shower head on/off in hand held unit rather than reaching to on/off feature Expected number of showers taken per visit
30- Urinals Ambulatory Time increase in traveling to a bathroom with an accessible urinal or waiting time for accessible toilet compartment to be available Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
31- Multiple single user toilet rooms Ambulatory Waiting time increase for accessible single user toilet room where multiple single user toilet rooms are available Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
32- Toilet room doors Wheelchair only Time increase in navigating smaller dimensions of bathroom, going in and turning around to close door Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
33- Water closet location and rear wall grab bar Ambulatory Time increase in using more caution when accessing and using shorter grab bar time Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
34- Patient toilet rooms Ambulatory Time increase in traveling to an accessible toilet room from intensive care patient sleeping room Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
35- Drinking fountains Wheelchair only Time saving in forward approach access rather than parallel access Expected number of uses per hour of a drinking fountain
36- Sinks Wheelchair only (employees only) Time saving in having accessible sink versus traveling to one that is accessible Expected number of uses per hour of a sink
37- Side reach Wheelchair only Time saving of reaching to a lower maximum height on side reach parts such as paper towel dispensers in bathrooms, coat hooks, thermostats, fire-alarm pull stations, card readers, etc. Expected number of uses per hour of certain operable parts
38 & 39- Sales and service counters Wheelchair only Waiting time increase for an accessible portion of the sales counter to be available, travel to an accessible counter, or any increase in the time to be served. Expected number of times approaching a sales and service counter
40 & 41- Washing machines and clothes dryers Ambulatory and upper body limitation Time increase due to less accessible washing machine or clothes dryer Expected number of uses of washing machines and clothes dryers
42- Self storage facilities Ambulatory Time saving from using accessible access rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit Expected number of uses of self-storage facility units
43- Limited access space/ service only Ambulatory Waiting time increase for someone to provide service assistance Expected number of trips made to and from limited access space/ service only space
44- Operable parts Wheelchair and upper body limitation Time increase in finding assistance Expected uses of operable parts while at a facility
45- Hotel guest room vanities Ambulatory Time saving in having more bathroom vanity space in stead of using another countertop elsewhere in the room Expected number of bathroom uses per hour
46- Operable windows Wheelchair and upper body limitation Time saving in opening and closing an operable window compared to a non-operable window; or waiting for assistance. Expected number of uses per hour of an operable window
47 & 48- Dwelling with communication features Hearing Time saving in getting attention of resident faster with audible and visual signals at doorbell rather than only audible signals; similar to requirement #57 Expected number of unaccompanied entrances
49- Galley kitchen clearances Wheelchair only Time saving in having 13 additional square feet in a galley kitchen to turn around in instead of forward in and backing out Expected number of uses per hour of a kitchen
50- Shower compartments Wheelchair only Time increase due to lessened usability for some users Expected number of showers taken
51- Location of accessible routes to stages Ambulatory Time saving in using direct route to stage rather than circuitous backstage ramp; assumes that use of facility would not necessarily involve stage access so that the likelihood of requiring access scales down the potential use Expected number of times access to the stage from general seating area would be required
52- Wheelchair space overlap in assembly areas Wheelchair only Time savings in having one's own seating area and maneuvering space and not having to move for general circulation Expected likelihood of desiring a wheelchair space
53- Lawn seating in assembly areas Ambulatory Time saving in accessing lawn seating area efficiently rather than without an accessible entrance; assumes that current access is possible but circuitous Expected number of trips made back and forth to seating area
54- Handrails on aisle ramps in assembly areas Ambulatory - non-wheelchair Time savings for persons who use a walker or cane Expected number of trips made to and from seating area in assembly areas
55- Wheelchair spaces in assembly areas Wheelchair only Reduction in wheelchair spaces assuming there is a shortage of spaces would reduce the use of a facility Expected reduction of number of uses of a facility
56- Accessible routes to tiered dining areas in sports facilities Ambulatory Time increase in traveling to an accessible tiered dining area in a sports facility Expected number of trips made to and from a dining area in a sports facility
57- Accessible route to press boxes Ambulatory Time increase to travel to a non-press box seat elsewhere Expected number of trips made to and from a press box
58- Public TTYs Hearing Waiting time decrease for a public TTY phone when there are more available; assumes that a TTY conversation may take longer and phone calls on public phones are at most 5 minutes Expected number of uses per hour of a public TTY phone
59- Public telephone volume controls Hearing Time saving in using higher decibel requirement for public telephones rather than using Telephone Relay Service (involves calling a public service to provide translation) or TTY phone Expected number of uses per hour of a public telephone
60- Two way communication systems Hearing Time saving in using audible and visible signals to gain admission to a facility rather than only audible signals; or having to wait for assistance to enter Expected number of unaccompanied entrances
61- ATM and fare machines Seeing Time saving in using tactilely discernable keys and audible tones at ATM and fare machines as opposed to using a teller or some other service person Expected number of uses of an ATM or fare machine per visit
62- Assistive Listening Systems (Technical requirements) Hearing Time saving in using assistive listening systems with technical specifications compared to learning about what may have been missed if not heard; assumes this applies mostly to lectures and public speaking, not music (which if not heard the whole experience may be lost) Likelihood of requiring the assistive listening system
63- Visible alarms in alterations to existing facilities Hearing Impact is only facilitating installation; there is no change in accessibility that would impact the access time Expected requiring visible fire alarm before alteration; assumes low probability of a fire
64 & 65- Detectable warnings Seeing Time increase of waiting for assistance to safely maneuver curb ramps, hazardous vehicular areas, and reflecting pools where detectable warnings are not required Likelihood of traveling alone at curb ramps, hazardous vehicular areas and reflecting pools
66- Assistive Listening Systems Hearing Waiting time increase for an assistive listening system, if there is regular turnover of devices and there is a shortage. Likelihood of requiring the assistive listening system
67- Accessible courtroom stations Wheelchair only (employees only) Time saving in having a clear forward approach to all courtroom stations compared to more circuitous approach Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station
68- Accessible attorney areas and witness stands Wheelchair only Time saving in using ramp, elevator or platform lift to attorney areas and witness stands compared to stairs; similar to requirement #65 Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station
69- Raised courtroom stations not for members of the public Ambulatory (judges and court personnel) Time saving in having access to a raised station compared to more circuitous approach; similar to requirement #65 Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station
70- Accessible route to machines and equipment Ambulatory Time savings in using an accessible route Expected number of uses of the machines and equipment
71- Accessible machines and equipment Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible machines rather than waiting for assistance to access equipment Expected number of uses of accessible machines and equipment
72 & 111- Accessible saunas and steam rooms Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible sauna and steam room rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit the room Expected number of uses of saunas and steam rooms
73- Accessible lockers Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible lockers rather than waiting for assistance to open and close lockers and maneuvers about them Expected number of uses of locker rooms
74- Accessible dressing rooms, fitting rooms or locker rooms Ambulatory For stadium and indoor sales establishments, results in time savings of changing and trying on clothes on location instead of traveling to and from home Expected number of uses of fitting rooms per visit
75- Wheelchair space in team or player seating area Wheelchair only Time saving in having access to a wheelchair space rather creating a space; assumes that a space would be created as needed Expected number of entrances of requiring a wheelchair space in team or player seating area
76- Accessible route connecting both sides of the court in court sport facilities Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible route instead a circuitous route Expected number of trips to and from the court floor area
77- Accessible route to bowling lanes Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible bowling lanes rather than waiting for assistance to access bowling lanes Expected number of trips made to and from bowling lanes at a bowling facility
78- Turning space at shooting facilities with firing positions Ambulatory Time saving in using turning space instead of having to maneuver outside of firing position Expected number of uses of each type of firing position
79 & 112- Accessible means of entry to pools Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible means of entry to pools rather than waiting for assistance with entering and exiting the pool Expected number of entrances and exits into and out of a pool at pool facility
80- Sloped accessible means of entry to wading pools Ambulatory Time saving in using sloped access to wading pools rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit Expected number of entrances and exits into and out of a wading pool while at a pool facility
81- Accessible means of entry to spas Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible entry to spa rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of entrances and exits of a spa
82- Accessible route to boat slips and boarding piers Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible routes to boat slips and boarding piers rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of entrances and exits of boat slips and boarding piers
83 & 84- Accessible boarding piers at boat launch ramps Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible boarding piers rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of entrances and exits of piers
85 & 86- Accessible boat slips Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible boat slip rather than waiting for assistance to access boat Expected number of uses of a boat slip at a boating facility
87- Accessible route to fishing piers and platforms Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible route rather than waiting for assistance to access fishing pier and platform Expected number of entrances and exits of fishing pier and platform
88- Accessible fishing piers and platforms Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible fishing piers rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of uses of fishing pier
89- Accessible route to all accessible elements in golf course Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of uses of elements and spaces in golf course
90 & 91- Accessible teeing grounds, putting greens, and weather stations at golf courses Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible elements from golf car rather than waiting for assistance to access areas or using more circuitous route Expected number of uses of teeing grounds, putting greens, and weather stations at golf courses
92- Accessible practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and teeing stations in driving ranges Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible elements from golf car rather than waiting for assistance to access areas or using more circuitous route Expected number of uses of practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and practice teeing stations in driving ranges
93- Accessible routes to holes Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible routes to holes rather than having assistance or using more circuitous route Expected number of entrances and exits to holes
94- Accessible holes Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible holes rather than waiting for assistance or using less straightforward approach to holes Expected number of holes accessed at miniature golf courses
95- Accessible route to rides Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance or using more circuitous route Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park
96- Wheelchair space or transfer seat of transfer device at amusement parks Wheelchair only Time saving in using wheelchair space rather than waiting for assistance to move in and out of seat Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park
97- Maneuvering space in load and unload areas at amusement parks Wheelchair only Time saving in using wheelchair space rather than waiting for assistance to move in and out of seat Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park
98- Signs at amusement parks Ambulatory Time saving in waiting only in lines for accessible rides Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park
99 & 101 & 103- Accessible route to play components Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance to access play components Expected number of entrances and exits of play components
100 & 102 & 104- Accessible play components Ambulatory Time saving in using accessible play components rather than waiting for assistance Expected number of uses of play components
105- Open Captioning in Sports Stadium Hearing Time saving in reading emergency announcements in real-time compared to asking others Likelihood of requiring captioning
106- Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing Time saved in accessing all levels of dorms rather than socializing elsewhere Expected number of visits to other floors (visiting friends, study areas, etc. on other floors)
107- Mobility Accessible Prison Cell Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing Waiting time increase for assistance from detention officers rather than being able to access cell independently Expected number of uses of accessible features inside the cell
108- Communication Accessible Prison Cell Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing Waiting time increase for assistance from detention officers rather than being able to access cell independently Expected number of uses of accessible features inside the cell
109- Social Service Establishment (UFAS) Ambulatory Time saving in transferring into a bed independently compared to waiting for assistance Expected number of uses of bed
110- Social Service Establishment (ADAAG) Ambulatory Time saving in transferring into a bed independently compared to waiting for assistance Expected number of uses of bed

L. Time Change / Expected Number of Uses Input

The following charts are the verified RAP panel data of the changes in access time and expected number of uses per element based on the description of each requirement’s impact. For requirements that no data was collected specifically for, these tables shows the estimates of the time change and expected number of uses in use, which are assumed to be equal to a requirement for which data was collected.

Table: Time Change in Hours - Summary of Panel Inputs

Requirement Avg. Low Avg. High Avg. Most likely Min. Low Min. High Min. Most likely Max. Low Max. High Max. Most likely Median Low Median High Median Most likely In Use Low In Use High In Use Most likely

Public Entrances

-0.08 0.23 0.09 -0.25 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.33 0.25 -0.08 0.25 0.08 -0.08 0.23 0.09

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

0.02 0.24 0.08 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.05 1.00 0.08 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.02 0.24 0.08

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

0.02 0.31 0.08 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.31 0.08

Thresholds at Doorways

0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01

Door and Gate Surfaces

0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03

Location of Accessible Routes

0.08 0.32 0.08 0.08 0.25 0.08 0.08 0.33 0.08 0.08 0.33 0.08 0.08 0.32 0.08

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

0.03 0.35 0.19 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.03 1.67 0.83 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.03 0.35 0.19

Accessible Means of Egress

0.02 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.25 0.08 0.02 0.25 0.08

Stairs (NC)

0.02 0.19 0.09 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.02 0.19 0.09

Stairs (ALT/BR)

                        0.02 0.19 0.09

Handrails Along Walkways

0.17 0.32 0.24 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.32 0.24

Handrails

0.00 0.06 0.03 -0.08 0.02 0.00 0.17 0.33 0.25 -0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.03

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

0.17 1.00 0.37 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.67 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.37

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

0.14 0.40 0.19 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.33 1.50 0.50 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.14 0.40 0.19

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

0.08 0.18 0.11 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.33 0.12 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.08 0.18 0.11

Alterations to Existing Elevators

0.02 0.23 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.08 1.50 0.17 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.23 0.06

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

0.06 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.13 0.09

“LULA” and Private Residence Elevators

0.06 0.11 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.17 0.17 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.09

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

0.20 0.96 0.39 0.17 0.67 0.33 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.20 0.96 0.39

Valet Parking Garages

0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33

Mechanical Access Parking Garages

                        0.17 1.00 0.33

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

0.18 1.00 0.51 0.17 1.00 0.50 0.25 1.00 0.58 0.17 1.00 0.50 0.18 1.00 0.51

Passenger Loading Zones

0.19 0.44 0.31 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.33 1.00 0.50 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.19 0.44 0.31

Parking Spaces

0.09 0.41 0.20 0.08 0.33 0.08 0.17 1.00 0.50 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.09 0.41 0.20

Parking Spaces (Signs)

0.09 0.36 0.18 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.17 0.67 0.33 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.09 0.36 0.18

Passenger Loading Zones (Medical / Long-Term Care)

0.14 0.48 0.25 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.14 0.48 0.25

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

0.16 0.33 0.25 0.08 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.16 0.33 0.25

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - out swinging door

0.02 0.33 0.09 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.33 0.09

Shower Spray Controls

0.02 0.09 0.06 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.06

Urinals

0.09 0.30 0.15 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.17 0.67 0.33 0.08 0.17 0.12 0.09 0.30 0.15

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

0.04 0.48 0.20 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.17 0.50 0.33 0.02 0.50 0.17 0.04 0.48 0.20

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - in swinging door

0.03 0.48 0.15 0.02 0.33 0.03 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.02 0.50 0.17 0.03 0.48 0.15

Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

0.01 0.10 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.50 0.05 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.10 0.02

Patient Toilet Rooms

0.02 0.43 0.21 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.03 0.75 0.33 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.43 0.21

Drinking Fountains

0.02 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03

Sinks

0.02 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.17 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.03

Side Reach

0.02 0.20 0.07 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.17 0.03 0.02 0.20 0.07

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

0.17 1.00 0.27 0.17 1.00 0.17 0.17 1.00 0.42 0.17 1.00 0.25 0.17 1.00 0.27

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

                        0.17 1.00 0.27

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

0.10 0.39 0.25 0.08 0.25 0.17 0.25 0.75 0.50 0.08 0.29 0.17 0.10 0.39 0.25

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

                        0.10 0.39 0.25

Self-Service Storage Access

0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.08 0.13 0.00 0.16 0.25 0.17

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33

Operable Parts

0.17 0.41 0.25 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.17 1.00 0.25 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.17 0.41 0.25

Transient lodging Guest Room Vanities

0.02 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.02 0.12 0.05

Operable Windows

0.02 0.33 0.18 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.33 0.25 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.33 0.18

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991]

0.02 1.00 0.31 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.67 0.02 1.00 0.25 0.02 1.00 0.31

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [UFAS]

                        0.02 1.00 0.31

Galley Kitchen Clearances

0.02 0.11 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.33 0.25 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.11 0.07

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

0.04 0.19 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.67 0.17 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.19 0.07

Location of Accessible Route to Stages

0.04 0.27 0.12 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.08 0.67 0.25 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.04 0.27 0.12

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

0.03 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.05

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

0.06 0.24 0.13 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.17 0.50 0.20 0.03 0.17 0.14 0.06 0.24 0.13

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

0.16 0.50 0.32 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.33 0.17 0.50 0.33 0.16 0.50 0.32

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

 n/a                            

Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

0.19 0.75 0.39 0.08 0.25 0.17 0.50 1.50 0.75 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.19 0.75 0.39

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25

Public TTYS

0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33 0.17 1.00 0.33

Public Telephone Volume Controls

0.09 0.21 0.15 0.08 0.17 0.13 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.08 0.17 0.13 0.09 0.21 0.15

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

0.02 1.00 0.23 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.50 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.23

ATMs and Fare Machines

0.02 1.00 0.23 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.42 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.23

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

0.08 1.13 0.47 0.08 1.00 0.25 0.08 2.00 2.00 0.08 1.00 0.25 0.08 1.13 0.47

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

0.00 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.33 0.17 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.02

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

0.02 1.00 0.20 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.33 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.20

Detectable Warnings (technical)

                        0.02 1.00 0.20

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

0.02 1.13 0.32 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 2.00 1.00 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.13 0.32

Accessible Courtroom Stations

0.04 0.17 0.09 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.05 0.20 0.12 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.04 0.17 0.09

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

0.04 0.21 0.10 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.07 0.50 0.17 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.04 0.21 0.10

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

0.05 0.43 0.09 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.17 2.00 0.12 0.03 0.17 0.08 0.05 0.43 0.09

Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.25

Accessible Machines and Equipment

0.17 0.50 0.26 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.33 0.17 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.50 0.26

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms

0.09 0.63 0.29 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 1.00 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.09 0.63 0.29

Accessible Lockers

0.02 1.00 0.22 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.50 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.22

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

0.02 0.94 0.23 0.02 0.50 0.17 0.02 1.00 0.33 0.02 1.00 0.17 0.02 0.94 0.23

Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

0.03 0.19 0.10 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.08 0.33 0.17 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.03 0.19 0.10

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

0.10 0.19 0.15 0.08 0.17 0.13 0.17 0.33 0.25 0.08 0.17 0.13 0.10 0.19 0.15

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

0.09 0.52 0.21 0.08 0.50 0.17 0.17 0.67 0.33 0.08 0.50 0.17 0.09 0.52 0.21

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

0.06 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.17 0.13 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.12 0.09

Accessible Means of Entry to Pools

0.09 0.52 0.25 0.08 0.50 0.10 0.17 0.67 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.09 0.52 0.25

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

0.09 0.50 0.24 0.08 0.50 0.08 0.17 0.50 0.33 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.09 0.50 0.24

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

0.10 0.55 0.27 0.08 0.50 0.17 0.17 0.75 0.33 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.55 0.27

Accessible Route for Boating Facilities

0.10 0.64 0.30 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 1.00 0.42 0.08 0.58 0.29 0.10 0.64 0.30

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

0.10 0.65 0.34 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 1.00 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.33 0.10 0.65 0.34

Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

                        0.10 0.65 0.34

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

0.11 0.56 0.32 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.11 0.56 0.32

Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

                        0.11 0.56 0.32

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

0.10 0.56 0.31 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.75 0.42 0.08 0.50 0.29 0.10 0.56 0.31

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

0.10 0.56 0.31 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.75 0.42 0.08 0.50 0.29 0.10 0.56 0.31

Accessible Route to Golf Courses

0.16 0.70 0.43 0.08 0.50 0.33 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.08 0.54 0.38 0.16 0.70 0.43

Accessible Practice Grounds at Golf Courses (Alt/BR)

0.56 1.13 0.71 0.50 1.00 0.67 1.00 2.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.56 1.13 0.71

Accessible Practice Grounds at Golf Courses (NC)

                        0.56 1.13 0.71

Accessible Practice Grounds at Driving Ranges

0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67

Accessible Route to Mini Golf Holes

0.50 1.13 0.71 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 2.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.13 0.71

Accessible to Mini Golf Holes

0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 1.00 0.67

Accessible Route to Rides

0.50 0.96 0.66 0.33 0.67 0.50 0.67 1.00 0.75 0.50 1.00 0.67 0.50 0.96 0.66

Wheelchair Space or Transfer Seat or Transfer Device

0.44 0.94 0.55 0.25 0.50 0.33 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.44 0.94 0.55

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area

0.44 0.94 0.55 0.25 0.50 0.33 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.44 0.94 0.55

Signs at Amusement Park rides

0.09 0.67 0.28 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.17 1.50 0.42 0.08 0.50 0.25 0.09 0.67 0.28

Accessible Route to Play Components

0.35 0.52 0.43 0.33 0.50 0.42 0.50 0.67 0.50 0.33 0.50 0.42 0.35 0.52 0.43

Accessible Play Components

0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58 0.50 1.00 0.58

Open Captioning in Sports Stadium

0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.33 0.50 0.42 0.17 0.25 0.01 0.00 0.17 0.02

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.33 0.50 0.42 0.08 0.17 0.00 0.00 2.62 1.00

Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.33 0.50 0.42 0.08 0.17 0.00 0.00 2.00 1.00

 

Number of uses per 100 hours or 100 visits

Requirement Avg. Low Avg. High Avg. Most likely Min. Low Min. High Min. Most likely Max. Low Max. High Max. Most likely Median Low Median High Median Most likely In Use Low In Use High In Use Most likely

Public Entrances

100 400 213 100 400 200 100 400 300 100 400 200 100 400 213

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

100 371 200 100 200 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 371 200

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2

Thresholds at Doorways

100 222 181 100 200 100 100 400 200 100 200 200 100 222 181

Door and Gate Surfaces

1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5

Location of Accessible Routes

13 48 27 2 4 2 100 400 200 2 4 2 13 48 27

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

46 164 116 2 10 5 200 600 500 2 20 8 46 164 116

Accessible Means of Egress

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Stairs (NC)

1 10 5 1 10 2 1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5

Stairs (ALT/BR)

                             

Handrails Along Walkways

1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5 1 10 5

Handrails

88 200 150 0 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 88 200 150

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

43 128 69 20 60 30 200 600 300 20 60 30 43 128 69

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

2 9 5 1 5 3 2 10 5 2 10 5 2 9 5

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

40 98 51 20 60 30 200 400 200 20 60 30 40 98 51

Alterations to Existing Elevators

2 10 5 2 10 5 2 10 5 2 10 5 2 10 5

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15

“LULA” and Private Residence Elevators

10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15 10 20 15

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Valet Parking Garages

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Mechanical Access Parking Garages

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Passenger Loading Zones

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Parking Spaces

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Parking Spaces (Signs)

125 406 222 100 350 200 300 500 400 100 400 200 125 406 222

Passenger Loading Zones (Medical / Long-Term Care)

138 419 238 100 350 200 400 600 500 100 400 200 138 419 238

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

5 100 50 5 100 50 5 100 50 5 100 50 5 100 50

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - out swinging door

1 91 46 1 20 15 1 100 50 1 100 50 1 91 46

Shower Spray Controls

2 100 50 2 100 50 2 100 50 2 100 50 2 100 50

Urinals

1 7 5 1 5 3 1 20 15 1 5 3 1 7 5

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

1 7 5 1 5 3 1 20 15 1 5 3 1 7 5

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - in swinging door

1 7 5 1 5 3 1 20 15 1 5 3 1 7 5

Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

2 11 6 1 10 3 3 20 15 2 10 3 2 11 6

Patient Toilet Rooms

1 7 4 1 5 3 4 15 5 1 5 3 1 7 4

Drinking Fountains

1 6 4 1 5 3 1 10 10 1 5 3 1 6 4

Sinks

1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2

Side Reach

1 20 15 1 5 2 1 80 80 1 5 2 1 20 15

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

                             

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

113 250 175 100 200 150 200 400 300 100 200 150 113 250 175

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

                             

Self-Service Storage Access

                             

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2

Operable Parts

1 50 20 1 50 20 1 50 20 1 50 20 1 50 20

Transient lodging Guest Room Vanities

100 675 178 100 5 15 100 6,000 500 100 5 20 100 675 178

Operable Windows

12 49 29 1 2 2 100 400 200 1 2 2 12 49 29

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991]

100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [UFAS]

                             

Galley Kitchen Clearances

1 75 24 1 5 2 5 400 150 1 5 2 1 75 24

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

3 15 7 2 10 2 10 30 28 2 10 2 3 15 7

Location of Accessible Route to Stages

1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

13 133 34 2 100 10 100 400 200 2 100 10 13 133 34

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

24 156 60 2 100 10 200 600 400 2 100 10 24 156 60

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

n/a

Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

89 400 200 3 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 89 400 200

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

43 76 47 20 30 25 200 400 200 20 30 25 43 76 47

Public TTYS

1 20 10 1 20 10 1 20 10 1 20 10 1 20 10

Public Telephone Volume Controls

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 2 2 1 2 2

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150 100 200 150

ATMs and Fare Machines

133 244 194 100 200 150 400 600 500 100 200 150 133 244 194

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

                             

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

2 10 4 0 10 0 2 10 5 2 10 5 2 10 4

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

6 17 12 5 10 6 10 56 50 5 10 6 6 17 12

Detectable Warnings (technical)

                             

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

5 10 8 5 10 8 5 10 8 5 10 8 5 10 8

Accessible Courtroom Stations

1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4 1 5 4

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

14 113 29 2 100 4 100 200 200 2 100 4 14 113 29

Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

200 500 300 200 500 300 200 500 300 200 500 300 200 500 300

Accessible Machines and Equipment

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms

5 21 20 5 10 8 5 100 100 5 10 8 5 21 20

Accessible Lockers

30 63 48 30 50 35 30 100 100 30 50 35 30 63 48

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

40 98 45 30 80 35 100 200 100 30 80 35 40 98 45

Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

3 21 18 2 5 3 5 100 100 2 5 3 3 21 18

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

100 267 192 100 200 150 100 600 400 100 200 150 100 267 192

Accessible Means of Entry to Pools

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

93 371 186 50 200 100 100 400 200 100 400 200 93 371 186

Accessible Route for Boating Facilities

100 400 225 100 400 200 100 400 400 100 400 200 100 400 225

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

100 400 225 100 400 200 100 400 400 100 400 200 100 400 225

Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

                             

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

100 400 225 100 400 200 100 400 400 100 400 200 100 400 225

Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

                             

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

100 400 213 100 400 200 100 400 300 100 400 200 100 400 213

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200 100 400 200

Accessible Route to Golf Courses

400 600 500 400 600 500 400 600 500 400 600 500 400 600 500

Accessible Practice Grounds at Golf Courses (Alt/BR)

200 600 400 200 600 400 200 600 400 200 600 400 200 600 400

Accessible Practice Grounds at Golf Courses (NC)

                             

Accessible Practice Grounds at Driving Ranges

200 400 300 200 400 300 200 400 300 200 400 300 200 400 300

Accessible Route to Mini golf Holes

900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950

Accessible to Mini golf Holes

900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950 900 1,800 950

Accessible Route to Rides

78 173 113 20 30 25 300 900 500 20 30 25 78 173 113

Wheelchair Space or Transfer Seat or Transfer Device

58 153 89 10 20 15 300 900 500 10 20 15 58 153 89

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area

21 43 38 10 20 15 100 200 200 10 20 15 21 43 38

Signs at Amusement Park rides

17 33 21 5 10 8 100 200 100 5 10 8 17 33 21

Accessible Route to Play Components

43 85 53 20 40 25 200 400 250 20 40 25 43 85 53

Accessible Play Components

43 85 53 20 40 25 200 400 250 20 40 25 43 85 53

Open Captioning in Sports Stadium

0.3 0.8 0.5 0 0 0 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0 0 0.5 0.3

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

0.2 0.4 0.3 0 0 0 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.2 0 0 0.3 0.2

M. Likelihood of Realizing Benefits

This table represents the assumptions on the likelihood that a typical user would experience the benefits from a changed element at each visit. For instance, some elements will only become active/used during a power outage; others are not likely to be encountered at every visit. The high and low values that create the range of the likelihood are plus and minus 10 percentage points of the most likely values if the most likely value is less than 50%, or plus and minus 20 percentage points of the most likely values if the most likely value is greater than or equal to 50%.

In consultation with the Department, HDR/HLB determined the likelihood of experiencing benefits from individual requirements grouped into one of several categories based upon the type of time savings resulting from each requirement and the likelihood that benefits would occur. The categories were then ranked from least likely to most likely and assigned conservative estimates of the likelihood of experiencing benefits. Broadly, Essentially, the categories are:

Requirement Most Likely Comments

1- Public Entrances

25%

likelihood of approaching entrance and having to travel further distance to find accessible entrance

2- Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

0.0001%

probability of power outage

3- Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

0.0001%

if emergency occurs

4- Thresholds at Doorways

25%

likelihood of traveling through a doorway that is affected

5- Door and Gate Surfaces

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

6- Location of Accessible Routes

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

7- Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

25%

likelihood of traveling through a path that is affected

8- Accessible Means of Egress

25%

likelihood of traveling through a doorway that is affected

9- Stairs (NC)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

10- Stairs (ALT/BR)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

11- Handrails Along Walkways

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

12- Handrails

5%

full access time estimate would be unlikely to occur during facility visit

13- Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

14- Standby Power for Platform Lifts

0.0001%

if power goes out

15- Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

25%

likelihood of using platform lift in facility

16- Alterations to Existing Elevators

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

17- Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

0.10%

likelihood of using platform lift and staying in a multi story hotel guest room

18- “LULA” and Private Residence Elevators

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

19- Van Accessible Parking Spaces

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

20- Valet Parking Garages

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

21- Mechanical Access Parking Garages

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

22- Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

23- Passenger Loading Zones

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

24- Parking Spaces

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

25- Parking Spaces (Signs)

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

26- Passenger Loading Zones at Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities

25%

access time change benefits only occur during inclement weather

27- Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

5%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

28- Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with Out-Swinging Doors

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

29- Shower Spray Controls

25%

likelihood of using shower in any facility visit

30- Urinals

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

31- Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

32- Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with In-Swinging Doors

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

33- Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

34- Patient Toilet Rooms

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

35- Drinking Fountains

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

36- Sinks

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

37- Side Reach

90%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

38- Sales and Service Counters (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

39- Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

40- Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

0.020%

adjust for % of Laundromats in facility groups

41- Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

0.020%

adjust for % of Laundromats in facility groups

42- Self-Service Storage Facility Spaces

25%

 

43- Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

25%

likelihood of using limited access spaces as a visitor of a facility

44- Operable Parts

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

45- Transient lodging Guest Room Vanities

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

46- Operable Windows

25%

accounts for seasonally adjusted

47- Dwelling Units with Communication Features[1]

0.0001%

probability of power outage

48- Dwelling Units with Communication Features[2]

0.0001%

probability of power outage

49- Galley Kitchen Clearances

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

50- Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

25%

likelihood of using shower in any facility visit

51- Location of Accessible Route to Stages

0.10%

likelihood of person in audience is called to stage

52- Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

53- Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

1.0%

low likelihood of use of lawn compared to house seating

54- Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

5%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

55- Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

5%

does not affect access time

56- Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

0.10%

likelihood of visiting tiered dining area during visit

57- Accessible Route to Press Boxes

0.10%

likelihood of visiting press box during visit

58- Public TTYS

0.10%

accounts for email and SMS

59- Public Telephone Volume Controls

0.10%

accounts for cell phone users

60- Two-Way Communication Systems at entrances

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

61- ATMs and Fare Machines

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

62- Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

0.10%

likelihood of using affected machines at a visit

63- Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

0.0001%

assumes benefit depends on alarm sounding

64- Detectable Warnings (SCOPING)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

65- Detectable Warnings (TECHNICAL)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

66- Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

67- Accessible Courtroom Stations

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

68- Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

69- Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

1.00%

must accounts for the number of users of court houses who would actually use the station; what about # of courtrooms in a courthouse

70- Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

71Accessible Machines and Equipment

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

72- Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

73- Accessible Lockers

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

74- Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

50%

likelihood of using dressing room during facility visit

75- Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

0.10%

splits the difference between kids in school (high potential use) and low use for persons in a stadium

76- Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

0.10%

splits the difference between kids in school (high potential use) and low use for persons in a stadium

77- Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

78- Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

50%

likelihood of realizing full time savings benefits during visit

79- Accessible Means of Entry to Pools (NC/ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

80- Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

81- Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

82- Accessible Route

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

83- Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

84- Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

85- Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

86- Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

87- Accessible Route

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

88- Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

89- Accessible Route to Golf Courses

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

90- Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens, and Weather Shelters at Golf Courses (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

91- Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens, and Weather Shelters at Golf Courses (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

92- Accessible Practice Putting Greens, Practice Teeing Grounds, and Teeing Stations at Driving Ranges

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

93- Accessible Route to Mini Golf Holes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

94- Accessible Mini Golf Holes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

95- Accessible Route to rides

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

96- Wheelchair Space or Transfer Seat or Transfer Device

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

97- Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

98- Signs

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

99- Accessible Route to Play Components (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

100- Accessible Play Components (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

101- Accessible Route to Play Components (ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

102- Accessible Play Components (ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

103- Accessible Route to Play Components (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

104- Accessible Play Components (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

105- Open Captioning in Sports Stadium

0.0001%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

106- Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

5%

likelihood of visiting dorm during facility visit

107- Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

108- Communication Accessible Prison Cell

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

109- Social service establishments (UFAS)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

110- Social service establishments (ADDAG)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

111- Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

112- Accessible Means of Entry to Pools (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

N. Total Access Time Change per Facility

This table shows the total time change per facility brought about by the applicable requirements change in access time.

 

New Access Time Current Access time Use time Time Savings / Current Access Time Net Time Change
Inns

4.41

4.58

0.00

4.1%

0.18

Hotels

4.32

4.58

0.00

5.9%

0.26

Motels

4.36

4.58

0.00

5.3%

0.23

Restaurants

0.28

0.29

1.00

7.6%

0.01

Motion Picture House

0.42

0.41

2.25

6.6%

-0.01

Theatre / Concert Hall

1.39

0.00

2.25

4.1%

0.02

Stadiums

0.53

0.61

4.00

23.2%

0.08

Auditoriums

0.51

0.52

2.80

8.1%

0.01

Convention centers

3.39

3.56

2.00

4.8%

0.17

Single level stores

1.03

1.02

0.00

0.5%

-0.01

Shopping malls

1.60

1.67

0.00

5.8%

0.07

Indoor Service Establishments

1.34

1.34

0.00

1.0%

0.00

Offices of health care providers

1.43

1.44

0.50

1.3%

0.02

Hospitals

5.22

5.29

1.00

4.4%

0.06

Nursing homes

7.33

7.29

7.00

1.7%

-0.04

Terminal (private airports)

0.77

0.87

0.00

13.6%

0.10

Depot

0.87

0.87

0.00

1.0%

0.00

Museums, historical sites & libraries

2.30

2.30

1.00

1.7%

0.00

Parks or zoos

3.71

3.89

0.00

5.7%

0.18

Amusement parks

6.38

6.96

2.00

9.1%

0.59

Nursery schools - Daycare

3.84

3.97

3.50

3.5%

0.13

Elementary private schools

3.64

3.97

3.50

8.5%

0.33

Secondary Private Schools

3.86

3.97

3.50

3.4%

0.11

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

3.62

4.06

3.50

11.6%

0.43

Ski facilities

3.32

3.34

2.00

0.8%

0.02

Homeless Shelter

6.39

6.46

0.00

3.8%

0.07

Food banks

1.23

1.25

3.00

1.3%

0.02

Social service establishments

0.25

0.25

2.00

0.5%

0.00

Exercise facilities

1.25

1.49

0.50

16.5%

0.24

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

1.61

2.32

1.00

31.1%

0.72

Bowling alleys

1.22

1.25

0.50

2.8%

0.03

Golf courses (private public access)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.7%

0.20

Golf courses (private only)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.9%

0.21

Miniature golf courses

0.78

0.90

1.00

13.9%

0.12

Recreational boating facilities

2.34

2.47

0.00

5.8%

0.14

Fishing piers and platforms

4.41

4.49

1.00

1.8%

0.08

Shooting facilities

4.90

4.97

0.50

1.7%

0.07

Office buildings

0.69

0.69

1.00

1.4%

0.01

Elementary public schools

3.78

3.98

3.50

5.1%

0.20

Secondary public schools

3.89

3.98

3.50

2.9%

0.09

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

3.55

3.98

3.50

11.6%

0.43

Public housing

6.45

6.69

6.00

3.8%

0.25

State and local judicial facilities (courthouses)

2.64

2.71

2.00

2.7%

0.07

State and local detention facilities (jails)

6.97

7.00

7.00

0.6%

0.03

State and local correctional facilities (prisons)

6.86

7.00

7.00

2.2%

0.14

Parking garages

0.89

0.92

0.00

2.5%

0.02

Self service storage facilities

0.84

0.92

0.00

10.2%

0.08

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

1.39

1.41

2.25

4.1%

0.02

Stadiums (public)

0.54

0.61

4.00

21.3%

0.07

Auditoriums (public)

0.51

0.52

2.80

8.1%

0.01

Convention centers (public)

3.39

3.56

2.00

4.8%

0.17

Hospitals (public)

5.22

5.29

1.00

4.4%

0.06

Nursing homes (public)

7.33

7.29

7.00

1.7%

-0.04

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

2.30

2.30

1.00

1.7%

0.00

Parks or zoos (public)

3.74

3.89

0.00

4.8%

0.15

Homeless Shelter (public)

6.39

6.46

0.00

3.8%

0.07

Exercise facilities (public)

1.30

1.49

0.50

12.8%

0.19

Social service establishments (public)

0.25

0.25

2.00

0.5%

0.00

Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public)

1.74

2.32

1.00

25.3%

0.58

Miniature golf courses (public)

0.78

0.90

1.00

13.9%

0.12

Recreational boating facilities (public)

2.34

2.47

0.00

5.8%

0.14

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

4.41

4.49

1.00

1.8%

0.08

Office buildings (public)

1.49

1.50

7.00

0.9%

0.01

Parking garages (public)

0.89

0.92

0.00

2.5%

0.02

Golf courses (public)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.9%

0.21

Restaurants (public)

0.28

0.29

1.00

5.9%

0.01

Amusement parks (public)

6.42

6.96

2.00

8.5%

0.54

O. Elasticities

The table below shows the elasticities and proxy elasticities used to calculate the generalized use and access cost by facility group. The table also references the sources. The public counterparts of the facilities listed below are assumed to have the same price elasticity of demand.

Facility Reported Elasticity Service or Product Measured in Reported Elasticity Elasticity Used in Model Source (See notes below)
Inns, Hotels, Motels 0.7

Lodging

 0.7

1

Restaurants 0.188

Restaurant meals

0.188

2

Motion picture houses, theaters, concert halls 0.4

Movies

0.4

3

Theaters, concert halls 0.33

Major orchestras

0.33

4

Stadiums 0.338-0.798

Performance tickets

0.568

5

Auditoriums 0.16

Small orchestras

0.16

4

Convention centers 0.338-0.798

Performance tickets

0.568

5

Single level stores 0.285

Food

0.285

6

Multi-level stores 0.713

Clothing

0.713

6

Indoor Service Establishments 1.02

Services

1.02

7

Terminal, depot or other station 0.7

Lodging

0.7

1

Hospitals 0.0161 – 0.0296 – 0.5037

Physiotherapy; General practitioner; specialists // Nursing homes

0.183

8

Offices of health care providers 0.1690 – 0.2692 – 0.4002

Physician services

0.228

8

Nursing homes 0.36 – 1.92

Persons with disability private payers of nursing home facility

0.78

9

Museums 0.25

Museums

0.25

10

Parks or zoos 0.297

Zoos and aquariums

0.297

11

Amusement parks 0.883

Recreation

0.883

6

Social service centers 1.02

Services

1.02

7

Homeless shelters 0

No demand for homeless shelters

1.02

7

Exercise facilities 0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Aquatic centers / swimming pools 0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Bowling alleys 0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Golf courses 1.8

Golf

1.8

12

Recreational boating facilities 0.62

Water trips at a State Park

0.62

13

Fishing piers and platforms 1.05

Improvements in quality in NC coastal fishing waters

1.05

14

Miniature golf courses 0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

5

Shooting facilities 0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

5

Day care centers & elementary private schools 0.6 – 0.8

Day care (associated with quality)

0.65

15, 16

Secondary private schools 0.6 – 0.8

Private education

0.65

15, 16

Undergraduate & postgraduate private schools 0.6

Higher education

0.6

17

Public schools 0.6 – 0.8

Private education

0.65

15, 16

Office buildings 1.02

Services

 1.02

7

State and local government housing 0.30 – 0.80 or 0.67 – 0.72

Housing 

0.70

18, 19

State and local judicial facilities 0

No demand for judicial facility visits

0

HDR assumption

State and local detention facilities 0

No demand for detention facility visits

0

HDR assumption

State and local correctional facilities 0

No demand for correctional facility visits

0

HDR assumption

Parking garages 1.02

Services

1.02

7

Self-storage facilities 1.02

Services

1.02

7

Sources:

  1. Hanson, Bjorn (2007). The U.S. Lodging Industry and the Economy, Presentation given at the International Hospitality Industry Investment Conference on June 4, 2007.
  2. Brown, Douglas M. (1990). The Restaurant and Fast Food Race: Who's Winning? Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 56, No. 4. 984-995.
  3. Corporate Finance Division (2007). A Discussion of Public Policy Revenue Tools under the City of Toronto Act, 2006: www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2007/ex/bgrd/backgroundfile-2052.pdf
  4. Luksetich, William A. and Mark D. Lange (1995). A Simultaneous Model of Nonprofit Symphony Orchestra Behavior. Journal of Cultural Economics, 19: 49-68. 49-68.
  5. Marburger, Daniel R. (1997). Optimal Ticket Pricing for Performance Goods. Managerial and Decision Economics, Vol. 18, No. 5. 375-381.
  6. Nelson, Jon P. (2001). Hard at Play! The Growth of Recreation in Consumer Budgets. Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1. 35-53.
  7. Chand, U. K. (1983). The Growth of the Service Sector in the Canadian Economy. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 13, No. 4. 339-379.
  8. Hunt-McCool, Janet, B.F. Kike and Ying Chu Ng (1994). Estimates of the Demand for Medical Care under Different Functional Forms. Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 9, No. 2. 201-218.
  9. Reschovsky, James D. (1998). The Roles of Medicaid and Economic Factors in the Demand for Nursing Home Care. HSR: Health Services Research, 33:4.787-813.
  10. Luksetich, William A. and Mark D. Partridge (1997). Demand Functions for Museum Services. Applied Economics 29. 1553-59.
  11. Cain, Louis P and Dennis A. Merritt, Jr. (2006). "The Demand for Zoos and Aquariums," Working paper, Loyola University Chicago and DePaul University.
  12. Melvin, Peter and Bobby McCormick: Sportometrics (2002). Technical Report 4: Some Characteristics of Golf in the United States.
  13. Bowker, J.M., John C. Bergstrom and Joshua Gill (2004). The Waterway at New River State Park: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences, and Economics, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.
  14. Whitehead, John, T. Haab, and Ju-Chin Huang (1999). Measuring Recreation Benefits of Quality Improvements with Revealed and Stated Behavior Data. Journal of Economic Literature, Q26.
  15. Leslie, Larry L. and Paul T. Brinkman (1987). Student Price Response in Higher Education: The Student Demand Studies. Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 58, No. 2. 181-204
  16. Campbell, R. and B. Siegel (1967). The Demand for Higher Education in the United States 1919- 1964. American Economic Review, 57. 482-94.
  17. Gallet, Craig (2007). A comparative analysis of the demand for higher education: results from a meta-analysis of elasticities. Economics Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7. 1-14.
  18. Houthakker, H.S., and L.D. Taylor (1970). Consumer Demand in the United States: Analyses and Projections. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  19. Polinsky, Mitchell and David T. Ellwood (1979). An Empirical Reconciliation of Micro and Grouped Estimates of the Demand for Housing. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 61, No. 2. 199-205.

P. Ease of Access (EOA) Adjustment by Facility

The Ease of Access Adjustment is used when calculating the number of users with disabilities at each facility type; and, when adjusting the demand curve to account for the impact on demand of improved access brought about by the proposed regulations.

The EOA is used to account for the fact that, before implementation of the proposed standards, access to some facilities may have been more limited for persons with disabilities than for the general population and that persons with disabilities would, therefore, have visited the relevant facility at a lower rate. The EOA adjustment reflects the estimate of the ratio of the average number of visits per person with disabilities to the average number of visits per person for all adults, adjusted for income. The EOA is applied by multiplying it to an interim estimate of uses by persons with disabilities calculated from total visits by all adults, the portion of adults with disability, adjusted for income. After the proposed standards are implemented, it is assumed that the new EOA is 100

The ratio between the new EOA and the current EOA is also used to adjust the initial slope of the demand curve to incorporate sensitivity to the change in access resulting from the implementation of the proposed standards. The elasticity for the facility is multiplied by the ratio of the EOAs. Thus, sensitivity to changes in access is higher in those facilities where accessibility had been more constrained prior to the proposed regulations. The point (Price, Q0) plus the adjusted slope are the basis of the demand curve used in the calculation of the consumer surplus.

Facility Ease of Access before implementing standards
Inns

90%

Hotels

90%

Motels

90%

Restaurants

90%

Motion Picture House

90%

Theatre / Concert Hall

90%

Stadiums

90%

Auditoriums

90%

Convention centers

90%

Single level stores

90%

Shopping malls

90%

Indoor Service Establishments

90%

Offices of health care providers

90%

Hospitals

90%

Nursing homes

90%

Terminal (private airports)

90%

Depots

90%

Museums, historical sites & libraries

90%

Parks or zoos

80%

Amusement parks

90%

Nursery schools - Daycare

90%

Elementary private schools

90%

Secondary Private Schools

90%

Undergraduate and postgraduate private schools

90%

Ski facilities

90%

Homeless Shelter

90%

Food banks

90%

Social service establishments

90%

Exercise facilities

60%

Aquatic centers / swimming pools

60%

Bowling alleys

70%

Golf courses (private with public access)

80%

Golf courses (private only)

80%

Miniature golf courses

60%

Recreational boating facilities

60%

Fishing piers and platforms

60%

Shooting facilities

60%

Office buildings

90%

Elementary public schools

90%

Secondary public schools

90%

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

90%

Public housing

90%

State and local judicial facilities (courthouses)

90%

State and local detention facilities (jails)

90%

State and local correctional facilities (prisons)

90%

Parking garages

90%

Self service storage facilities

90%

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

90%

Stadiums (public)

90%

Auditoriums (public)

90%

Convention centers (public)

90%

Offices of health care providers (public)

90%

Hospitals (public)

90%

Nursing homes (public)

90%

Museums, historical sites & libraries (public)

90%

Parks or zoos (public)

80%

Homeless Shelter (public)

90%

Exercise facilities (public)

60%

Social service establishments (public)

90%

Aquatic centers / swimming pools (public)

60%

Miniature golf courses (public)

60%

Recreational boating facilities (public)

60%

Fishing piers and platforms (public)

60%

Office buildings (public)

90%

Parking garages (public)

90%

Golf courses (public)

80%

Restaurants (public)

90%

Amusement parks (public)

60%

Q. Examples of Consumer Surplus Calculations

Following are several examples for the calculation of benefits as described in section 3.2.3.

Example for Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms – In-Swinging Doors in Restaurant Facilities

This section details the benefits resulting from water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms with in-swinging doors (requirement 32) at restaurants.

First, the estimation of benefits begins with the total number of visits at the facility group (Q0). This estimate is taken from market research estimating that there are 48 billion visits to restaurants annually, which is the equivalent of about 200 visits per average US adult each year, or 4 times a week. The income adjustment (IA) for restaurants (60%) and the Ease of Access (EOA) for restaurants (80%) are applied to this figure.

Q0 visits to Restaurants = 48 billion * 60% (IA) * 90% (EOA) = 26.1 billion visits

Then, to reflect that this requirement is intended to benefit persons using a wheelchair, Q0 is multiplied by that portion of the population, approximately 1.2% of the population.

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 32 in Restaurants = 26.1 billion * 1.2% of population using a wheelchair = 313.2 million visits

Similar calculations for all other requirements in restaurants yield 6.6 billion total visits by visitors with disabilities of all types to restaurants.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is determined next. Data on the total time saved per use is derived from Benefits RAP panel input (in this case, 0.186 hours). The data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by the requirement for water closet clearance is used 0.048 times per hour of a visit. The frequency of element uses per visit, for this case, is measured in uses per hour of access time spent at the facility. This is multiplied by the panelists' input on the access time per facility (0.287 hours in restaurants) which equals 0.014 uses per visit. The likelihood of using the element during a facility visit and realizing the full benefits is assumed to be 25%. The likelihood of this element being present in the facility, which is data provided by the Cost RAP panelists, is assumed to be 50%.

At per requirement =   Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement = 0.19 hours * 0.014 * 25% * 50% = 0.00033 hours (about 1.2 seconds)

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at restaurants, a total time saved due to all requirements by wheelchair users at a restaurant is computed. This amount, 0.012 hours (42.3 seconds), is due to a total of 8 requirements that affect persons using wheelchairs. This net time savings for persons using wheelchairs at restaurants includes the less stringent requirement for sales and service counters.

The slope (m) of the demand curve for restaurants per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). The resulting figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for persons using wheelchairs         = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 32 / C)

                                 = 0.188 * (100% / 90%) * (313.2 million/ $8)

                                                         = 8.179 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for restaurants for persons using wheelchairs found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made by current users due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for persons using wheelchairs        = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]

= 313.2 million + [8.179 million * $17 * 0.012 hours]

= 314.9 million visits

It is estimated that there are more visits made by persons using wheelchairs because of the net time savings per visit (43.2 seconds).

The value of the time change at restaurants is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to restaurants who could benefit from this requirement (314.9 million visits by people using wheelchairs). Restaurant visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $8.50/hour, or half of the hourly earnings rate.[3] A VOT premium for the enhanced quality of access time – in this case equal to 100% of the base VOT is added; the resulting total VOT is $17 per hour.

The annual consumer surplus (CS) is computed below per disability and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings. Specifically, the net time change per disability is computed from the time change per visit:

Annual CS per disability category[4] = (Q0 * VOT * At) + 1/2 (VOT * At) 2 * m

= (313.2 million * $17 * 0.012 hours) + 1/2 ($17 * 0.012 hours) 2 * 8.179 million

= -$77.19 million

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability category)* At / (Net time

change per disability category)

                                                             = ($77.19 million * 0.00033 hours) / (0.012 hours)

                         = $2.11 million

This facility and requirement are not included in either the use value nor the new user benefit estimation.

The present value of benefits is computed over a 40 year planning horizon. Population growth of persons with disabilities is assumed to grow at 0.8%, the same rate as the general population. The present value of benefits equals $10.64 million for requirement 32 in restaurants.

In order to incorporate the uncertainty surrounding the assumptions, estimates, and expectations in the model, high and low estimates are used to bracket the expected, or "most likely" value for many parameters. The ranges of values are used to approximate the full range of possible outcomes. All figures used above are calculated using the "most likely" value for variables in which there are high, most likely, and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

 

Parameter

Low

High

Most Likely

Access time per facility (restaurants) hours

0.19

0.40

0.29

Access time change per element (Req 32) hours

0.03

0.48

0.15

Frequency of use per access hour per element (Req 32)

0.01

0.07

0.05

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 32)

30%

70%

50%

Likelihood of using element (Req 32)

15%

35%

25%

Example for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Aquatic centers / swimming pools

Another example involves computing benefits from accessible means of entry to pools (requirement 79 as indexed in the Draft RIA on July 30) at privately-owned swimming pool facilities (pools).

It is assumed from data from the Census Bureau’s Economic Census that pools collect $2.79 billion in sales receipts. It is assumed that the market price per facility visit (C) is $10. This results in 279 million visits to aquatic centers / swimming pools each year (Sales/Market Price), which is approximately 1 visit per year per average US adult. The number of visits (Q0) to pools is adjusted by the income adjustment of 60% and Ease of Access adjustment of 60%, and then by the percent of persons with ambulatory disabilities, which is approximately 11.4% of the total population.

Q0 visits to Pools = 279 million * 60% (IA) * 60% (EOA) = 100.4 million

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 79 in Pools = 100.4 million * 11.4% of population with ambulatory disabilities = 11.45 million. (1.21 million wheelchair users (1.2%) and 10.15 million non-wheelchair users (10.2%)).

Similar calculations for all other requirements at pools yield 25.42 million visits by persons with disabilities.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is computed using the following: The frequency of element uses is assumed to be uses per visit; the data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by this requirement (the pool) is used on average 2.167 times per visit. The key difference between this calculation and the previous example is that it is assumed that this element is used per visit rather than per hour of access time. Data on total time saved per element is collected from the Benefits panelists (0.27 hours). The likelihood of using the element during a facility visit and realizing the full benefits is assumed to be 50%. The likelihood of this element being present in the facility is assumed to be 80%.

At per requirement =   Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement = 0.27 hours * 2.16 * 50% * 80% = 0.235 hours (about 14.1 minutes)

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at pools, the total time saved for persons with ambulatory disabilities is computed. This amount, 0.71 hours (43 minutes), is due to a total of 18 requirements intending to benefit persons with ambulatory disabilities. In this particular case, the time savings for wheelchair and non-wheelchair users are about the same.

The slope (m)[5] of the demand curve for pools per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). The resulting figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for persons in wheelchairs              = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)

                                    = 0.813* (100% / 60%) * (1.21 million visits/ $10)

= 0.163 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

m for persons with other ambulatory disabilities

= ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)

                                                = 0.813* (100% / 60%) * (10.25 million visits/ $10)

= 1.389 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for pools for persons with ambulatory disabilities found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for persons in wheelchairs                          = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]

= 1.21 million + [0.163 million * $8.50 per hour * 0.71 hours]

= 2.20 million visits

Q1 for persons with ambulatory disabilities    = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]

= 10.25 million + [1.389 million * $8.50 per hour * 0.71 hours]

= 28.64 million visits

The value of the time change at pools is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to pools who could benefit from this requirement (11.45 million persons with ambulatory disabilities). Pool visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $4.50/hour (recreational visitors are assumed to have a lower value of time than visitors to other facilities).[6] A requirement-specific access premium of 100% is applied, resulting in a VOT of $8.50/hour.

Annual consumer surplus (CS)[7] is computed below per disability and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings.

Annual CS per disability = (Q0 * VOT * At) + 1/2 (VOT * At) 2 * m

 = (1.21 million * $8.50 * 0.71 hours) + 1/2 ($8.50 * 0.71 hours) 2 * 0.163 million

 = $12.4 million

Annual CS per disability = (Q0 * VOT * At) + 1/2 (VOT * At) 2 * m

 = (10.25 million * $8.50 * 0.71 hours) + 1/2 ($8.50 * 0.71 hours) 2 * 1.389 million

 = $103.82 million

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change for

persons with ambulatory disabilities)

                                                            = ($12.4 million + 103.82) * (0.235hours / (0.71 hours)

= $38.69 million

The calculation of benefits for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Aquatic Centers/Swimming Pools do not include any use value, so in this sense the calculation is the same as the Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with In-Swinging Doors in Restaurant Facilities. However, the calculation of benefits for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Aquatic centers / swimming pools has one additional step because these are new, or supplemental, requirement (as are all play and recreation requirements) they are assumed to have a greater impact on new users. The number and benefits derived from these new users is estimated as follows[8]:

Q’1 for persons in wheelchairs                        = Q1 + 0.5m * [VOT * At + VOThelp * UseTime * VOT adjustment]

= 2.2 million + 0.5 * 0.163 [$8.50 per hour * 0.71 hours + $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]

= 4. million visits

Q’1 for persons with other ambulatory disabilities

= Q1 + 0.5m * [VOT * At + VOThelp * UseTime* VOT adjustment]

= 10.25 million + 0.5 * 1.389* [$8.50 per hour * 0.71 hours + $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]

= 33.7 million visits

The total number of disabled users after the implementation of the new standards is then 37.7

Finally, the Annual CS is then adjusted to incorporate the new users as well as the use value, if any.

Annual CS wheelchair           = 1/2 * m (VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime * VOT Adjustment) 2

        = 1/2 * 0.163 ($8.50 * 0.71 hours+ $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]) 2

        = $27.55 million

Annual CS non-wheelchair    = (1/2 * m (VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime * VOT Adjustment) 2

        = 1/2 * 1.389* ($8.50 * 0.71 hours+ $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]) 2

        = $232.90 million

The consumer surplus assigned to the requirement is then:

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change for

persons with ambulatory disabilities)

                                                            = ($27.55 + $232.90) * (0.235hours / (0.71 hours)

= $86.71 million

Annual Consumer Surplus including

New users and Use value                  = Annual CS for requirement 79 + New Users + Use Value

                                                            = $38.69 million + $86.71 million + $0 million

                                                            = $125.4 million

The present value of benefits is computed by discounting the annual benefits over the regulation’s lifecycle. Population of persons with disabilities grows with general population. The present value of benefits for requirement 79 at pools equals $233.4 million.[9]

All of the estimations above are based on the most likely values for the variables in which there are high, most likely and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

Parameter

Low

High

Most Likely

Access time per facility (pools) hours

2.20

2.48

2.32

Access time change per element (Req 79) hours

0.09

0.52

0.25

Frequency of use per visit per element (Req 79)

1

4

2

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 79 at pools)

70%

100%

90%

Likelihood of using element (Req 79)

0%

15%

5%


Example for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Hotels

Another example involves computing benefits from accessible means of entry to pools (requirement 79 as indexed in the Draft RIA on July 30) at hotel facilities.

It is estimated from data collected by The American Travel and Lodging Association that there are 616 million visits to hotels made by all Americans annually, or about 2.5 visits per person per year. It is assumed that the market price per facility visit (C) is $150. The number of visits (Q0) to hotels is adjusted by the income adjustment of 60% and Ease of Access adjustment of 90%, and then by the percent of persons with ambulatory disabilities, which is approximately 11.4% of the total population.

Q0 visits to hotels = 616 million * 60% (IA) * 90% (EOA) = 332.8 million

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 79 (pools) in hotels = 332.8 million * 11.4% of population with ambulatory disabilities = 37.9 million (4 million wheelchair users (1.2%) and 33.9 million non-wheelchair users (10.4%))

Similar calculations for all other requirements at hotels yield 84.2 million visits by persons with disabilities.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is computed using the following: As in the previous example, the frequency of element uses is assumed to be uses per visit; the data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by this requirement (the pool) is used on average 2.16 times per visit, and the time saved per use is 0.27 hours. However, for this facility-requirement time savings, it is assumed that there is a 6% likelihood of using the element and realizing the full benefits and a 72% likelihood of the pool being present in the hotel.

At per requirement =   Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement = 0.27 hours * 2.16 * 6% * 72% = 0.0246 hours (about 1.4 minutes)

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at hotels, the total time saved for persons with ambulatory disabilities is computed. This amount is estimated for wheelchair and non-wheelchair users, as 0.23 hours (almost 14 minutes for both type of users), and it is due to a total of 14 requirements intending to benefit persons with ambulatory disabilities.

The slope (m) of the demand curve for hotels per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). This figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for wheelchair users                        = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)

                                                            = 0.7 * (100% / 90%) * (4 million visits/ $150)

= 21 thousand visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

m for persons non-wheelchair users    = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)

                                                            = 0.7 * (100% / 90%) * (33.9 million visits/ $150)

= 176 thousand visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for hotels for persons with ambulatory disabilities found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for wheelchair users                       = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]

= 4 million + [21 thousand * $17.00 * 0.23 hours]

= 4.07 million visits

Q1 for non-wheelchair users                = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]

= 33.9 million + [176 thousand * $17.00 * 0.23 hours]

= 34.6 million visits

The value of the time change at pools is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to hotels who could benefit from this requirement (37.9 million persons with ambulatory disabilities). Hotel visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $8.50/hour.[10] A requirement-specific access premium of 100% is applied, resulting in a VOT of $17/hour.

Annual consumer surplus (CS) is computed below per disability group and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings.

Annual CS for wheelchair users        = (Q0 * VOT * At) + 1/2 (VOT * At) 2 * m

= (4 million * $17 * 0.23 hours) + 1/2 ($17 * 0.23 hours) 2 * 21 thousand

                    = $18.77 million

Annual CS for wheelchair users        = (Q0 * VOT * At) + 1/2 (VOT * At) 2 * m

= (33.9 million * $17 * 0.23 hours) + 1/2 ($17 * 0.23 hours) 2 * 176 thousand

                    = $154.49 million

Total CS for requirement                   = (Sum of Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change for persons with ambulatory disabilities)

= ($18.77 million + 154.49 million ) * (0.0246 hours) / (0.23 hours)

= $19.25 million

This facility and requirement are not included in either the use value nor the new user benefit estimation. The present value of benefits is computed by discounting the annual benefits over the regulation’s lifecycle. Population of persons with disabilities grows with general population. The present value of benefits for requirement 79 at hotels equals $34.2 million.

All of the estimations above are based on the most likely values for the variables in which there are high, most likely and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

Parameter

Low

High

Most Likely

Access time per facility (hotels) hours

4.45

4.90

4.58

Access time change per element (Req 79) hours

0.09

0.52

0.25

Frequency of use per visit per element (Req 79)

1

4

2

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 79 at hotels)

57.6%

86.4%

72%

Likelihood of using element (Req 79)

0%

15%

5%

 


 



[1] Marcus von Wartburg and W.G. Waters II, "Chapter 2: Congestion Externalities and the Value of Travel Time Savings," in Towards Estimating the Social and Environmental Costs of Transportation in Canada, Anming Khang, at al eds. Center for Transportation Studies, University of British Columbia, August 2004.

[2] Federal Register, Section 5309, "FTA New Starts Criteria," November 12, 1997, Volume 62, number 218, pp 60756 – 69758.

[3] See the Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

[4] The consumer surplus is further adjusted to account for the years that will pass before the full benefits are spilled to users in the form of consumer surplus. The numbers shown in these examples include such adjustments.

[5] Effectively, the consumer surplus for people with ambulatory disabilities is estimated as the sum of the consumer surplus for people in wheelchairs plus the consumer surplus with people with other ambulatory disabilities. This average slope is just a weighted average of the slopes actually use in the estimation.

[6] See the Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

[7] As mentioned above, the numbers presented here are adjusted to reflect the market consumer surplus at a time when all construction will have been finished.

[8] An adjustment is made on the number of users and the consumer surplus, so that the rate of use per disabled users does not exceed the rate of use per non-disabled users. A cap is set to the number of disabled visits per facility in order to attain this purpose. The numbers shown here incorporate this adjustment.

[9] The cost of barrier removal for this requirement is zero and so are the benefits. Then, benefits are obtained only from alterations and new construction. This is why the present value may seem low when compare to the annual consumer surplus.

[10] See Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

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