Appendix 4: Benefits Estimation Data

A. Average Visits by Adults per Facility

The following table shows the estimated annual visits made by an average adult. Industry-specific data was found for many facilities (see following table for source and calculation notes). For other facilities, the number of visits was estimated using the methodology described in Section 4.2.1.

Facility Group Annual visits made by average U.S. adult

Inns

1.41

Hotels

2.08

Motels

1.87

Restaurants

158.81

Motion Picture House

3.59

Theatre / Concert Hall

1.06

Stadiums

0.57

Auditoriums

0.52

Convention Centers

0.15

Single Level Stores

63.24

Shopping Malls

8.47

Indoor Service Establishments

83.13

Offices of Health Care Providers

2.80

Hospitals

0.24

Nursing Homes

1.76

Terminal (private airports)

0.00

Depots

0.08

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

5.75

Parks or zoos

0.29

Amusement Parks

0.87

Nursery schools - Daycare

10.97

Elementary Private Schools

1.74

Secondary Private Schools

0.55

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

2.93

Ski Facilities

0.15

Homeless Shelter

0.34

Food Banks

0.68

Social Service Establishments

3.36

Exercise Facilities

4.93

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

1.33

Bowling Alleys

0.79

Golf Courses (private with public access)

0.91

Golf Courses (private only)

0.21

Miniature golf courses

1.70

Recreational Boating Facilities

0.14

Fishing Piers and Platforms

0.02

Shooting Facilities

0.10

Office Buildings

0.25

Elementary Public Schools

11.34

Secondary Public Schools

14.92

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

0.04

Public Housing

0.26

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

0.01

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

0.04

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

3.03

Parking Garages

5.14

Self Service Storage Facilities

0.17

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

0.00

Stadiums (public)

1.71

Auditoriums (public)

0.03

Convention Centers (public)

0.23

Hospitals (public)

0.06

Nursing Homes (public)

0.16

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

11.14

Parks or zoos (public)

4.48

Homeless Shelter (public)

0.05

Exercise Facilities (public)

0.18

Social Service Establishments (public)

1.37

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)

0.19

Miniature golf courses (public)

0.17

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

0.21

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

0.02

Office Buildings (public)

0.83

Parking Garages (public)

0.05

Golf Courses (public)

0.02

Restaurants (public)

0.01

Amusement Parks (public)

0.02

For those facilities for which industry-specific data on total or average visits was found, the following table details the source and calculations behind the estimates for the average number of visits by an adult.

Facility Type Source Notes
Inns

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor – to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities <75 rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Hotels

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor - to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities 150+ rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Motels

American Hotel and Lodging Association (rooms and occupancy) and D.K. Shifflet & Associates, Ltd. (average visitor - to estimate number of people per room)

Number of occupied rooms (facilities 75-150 rooms) adjusted for average number of occupants (leisure and business)

Restaurants

HDR estimates and the National Restaurant Association, "Meal Consumption Behavior"

Adjusted NRA data for number of meals commercially prepared to estimate meals by adults and restaurants; reflected in market price

Motion Picture House

U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2007, table 1229

Adjusted by population 18 and over

Multi-level stores

International Council Of Shopping Centers, "2003 Mall Shopping Patterns" and HDR

Annualized quarterly visits and adjusted to estimate multi-level facilities only

Offices of Health Care Providers

Catharine W. Burt, et al., "Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005," Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

For population 15+ years

Hospitals

Catharine W. Burt, et al., "Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005," Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

Allocated total visits to reflect proportion of hospital that are private (calculated from  American Hospital Association, "Fast Facts"); For population 15+ years

Nursing Homes

Center for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, "National Nursing Home Survey" (NNHS)

Adjusted beds by occupancy rate

Terminal

Federal Aviation Administration, All Enplanements for General Aviation: 2005.

Enplanements at general aviation depots and fields

Depot

U.S. Department of Transportation, "Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey" (bus trips) and websites of the Leatherstocking Historical Railway, The Adirondack Railway Preservation Society, Grand Canyon Railway, Delaware and Ulster Railways, Strasburg Railroad, Catskill Mountain Rail Rd (private railways)

Estimated long distance bus trips (assumed one quarter of total) and visits to private railways

Parks or zoos

Zoos: number of zoos from the American Zoological Society and total visits from the American Association of Museums. Parks: The National Association of State Park Directors

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the U.S.

Amusement Parks

"Amusement Park and Attractions Industry Statistics, "International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, for 2006.

Number of person trips, adjusted for adults

Nursery schools/Day Care

Number of children preschoolers and children under 5: U.S. Census Bureau "Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Spring 1999;" Detailed Tables (PPL-168)

Assumed 5 days a week for 49 weeks a year.

Fishing Piers and Platforms

HDR estimates, based on Michael Thomas and Nicholas Stratis, "Assessing the Economic Impacts and Value of Florida's Public Piers and Boat Ramps" and conversation with the American Sportfishing Association

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the U.S.

Elementary Private Schools

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2003–2004 Private School Universe Survey".

Number of students time average school year

Secondary Private Schools

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2003–2004 Private School Universe Survey".

Number of students time average school year

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "Digest of Education Statistics: 2005 Edition"

Assumed that full-time students (both living on campus and living off-campus) averaged vests 6 days a week and part-time students averaged 3 visits a week; all for 34 weeks a year.

Ski Facilities

U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2007, table 1229

Adjusted by population 18 and over

Homeless Shelter

Department of Housing and Urban Development, "The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress," February 2007

Averaged three one-day estimates in same year of number of people in shelters; assumed 365 days, adjusted for adults; allocate total visits to reflect percentage of facilities that are private (from same report)

Food Banks

U.S. Department of Agriculture, "The Emergency Food System" Vol. II , table 3.2 (page 49) and Executive Summary, page iv

Adjusted for adult population

Public Housing

http://www.hud.gov/renting/phprog.cfm

1.2 million households live in public housing. This is multiplied by 365 days a year and 8 hours per day to make consistent with daily visits.

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for details

Stadiums (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Auditoriums (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Convention Centers (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Hospitals (public)

Catharine W. Burt, et al., "Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization Estimates for 2005," Center for Disease Control, Division of Health Care Statistics.

Allocated total visits to reflect proportion of hospital that are public (calculated from  American Hospital Association, "Fast Facts"); For population 15+ years

Nursing Homes (public)

Center for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, "National Nursing Home Survey" (NNHS)

Adjusted beds by occupancy rate

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Parks or zoos (public)

American Association of Museums, 2006 Museum Financial Information survey

Used estimates for zoos and historical sites (latter as proxy)

Homeless Shelter (public)

Department of Housing and Urban Development, "The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress," February 2007

Averaged three one-day estimates in same year of number of people in shelters; assumed 365 days, adjusted for adults; allocate total visits to reflect percentage of facilities that are private (from same report)

Exercise Facilities (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Social Service Establishments (public)

Facilities (service) estimated from Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Miniature golf courses (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

HDR estimates, based on Michael Thomas and Nicholas Stratis, "Assessing the Economic Impacts and Value of Florida's Public Piers and Boat Ramps" and conversation with the American Sportfishing Association.

Total visits calculated and adjusted for adults in the U.S.

Office Buildings (public)

Facilities (administrative) estimated from Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Parking Garages (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Golf Courses (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

Restaurants (public)

HDR estimates and the National Restaurant Association, "Meal Consumption Behavior"

Adjusted NRA data for number of meals commercially prepared to estimate meals by adults and restaurants; reflected in market price

Amusement Parks (public)  

Assumed same ratio of visit per facility as per private facility group (which was calculated using receipts – see Chapter 4.2.1 for discussion of methodology)

NB: All data was adjusted to 2010. When adjusted for the adult population, the percent of the U.S. population 18 years of age and older was used to make the adjustment.

B. Total U.S. Population

The 2010 population estimates are based on the U.S. Census projections of population age groups for July 1, 2009.

The visits made to school facilities are based on the age group that attends the specific school facility group. The number of visits due to new independent access at recreational facilities is based on the total U.S. population 18 years and older, adjusted for disability type.

US Census Estimates Cumulative Growth Rate Population Estimate

July 1, 2009

N/A

307,006,550

July 1, 2008

1%

304,374,846

July 1, 2007

2%

301,579,895

July 1, 2006

3%

298,593,212

July 1, 2005

4%

295,753,151

July 1, 2004

5%

293,045,739

July 1, 2003

6%

290,326,418

July 1, 2002

7%

287,803,914

July 1, 2001

8%

285,081,556

July 1, 2000

9%

282,171,957

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

C. Total Sales per Facility

This table shows total sales receipts per facility group, as well as the applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code and description as defined in 2007 U.S. Economic Census.

Facility Group Name NAICS Code 2007 Economic Census Sales Receipts / Revenues NAICS Code Definition / Source
Inns

7211

$4,513,259,963

% of Traveler Accommodations with less than 10 - 24 guestrooms from Table 10 of the 2002 Accommodation & Food Services Subject Series: Miscellaneous Subjects Report applied to 2007 Economic Census data for NAICS 7211

Hotels

7211

$165,528,539,983

% of Traveler Accommodations with 25-99 guestrooms from Table 10 of the 2002 Accommodation & Food Services Subject Series: Miscellaneous Subjects Report applied to 2007 Economic Census data for NAICS 7211

Motels

7211

$10,266,379,054

% of Traveler Accommodations with 100+ guestrooms from Table 10 of the 2002 Accommodation & Food Services Subject Series: Miscellaneous Subjects Report applied to 2007 Economic Census data for NAICS 7211

Restaurant / Bar, other establishments serving food or drink

722

$433,400,775,000

Food Services and Drinking Places

Motion Picture House

512131

$12,247,794,000

Motion Picture Theater

Theatre / Concert Hall

7111

$13,752,688,000

Performing Arts Companies

Stadiums

7112

$30,009,103,000

NAICS 7112: Spectator Sports multiplied by the estimate of privately owned stadiums.In June 2000, it was reported that 75% of stadiums were publicly owned. (Coates and Humphreys, "The Stadium Gambit and Local Economic Development.")

Auditorium, lecture hall, other place of public gathering

71131

$10,355,742,000

Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Similar Events with Facilities

Convention Center

561920

$11,288,482,000

Convention and trade show organizers multiplied by the estimate from Tradeshow Week Major Exhibit Hall Directory of privately owned convention centers, 38%.

Bakery / Grocery Store

445

$539,523,919,000

Food and Beverage Stores

Clothing Store

448

$215,411,891,000

Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores

Hardware Store

444

$320,065,312,000

Building Material and Garden Equipment and Supplies Dealers

Motor vehicle & parts dealers

441

$892,649,300,000

Motor vehicle & parts dealers

Furniture & home furnishings stores

442

$107,804,538,000

Furniture & home furnishings stores

Electronics & appliance stores

443

$108,989,028,000

Electronics & appliance stores

Sporting goods, hobby and music stores

451

$80,792,697,000

Sporting goods, hobby and music stores

General merchandise stores

452

$578,007,698,000

General merchandise stores

Miscellaneous store retailers

453

$103,500,445,000

Miscellaneous store retailers

Shopping Malls

5311203

$35,164,343,000

Lessors of shopping centers and retail stores

Laundromats, Dry Cleaner, Shoe Repair, Funeral Parlor, Beauty Shop / Barber Shop

812

$132,488,964,000

Personal and Laundry Services (less parking garages, see Parking Garage facility group).  Includes 2007 Non Employer data receipts

Pharmacy

446

$235,601,576,000

Health and Personal Care Stores

Banks / Insurance

522, 523, 524, 525

$3,066,112,638,000

Finance and Insurance

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Svcs

541

$1,297,070,647,000

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

Travel Services

5615

$41,334,818,000

Travel Arrangement and Reservation Services

Gas Stations

447

$447,856,112,000

Gasoline Stations

Professional Offices of healthcare providers

621

$677,435,142,000

Ambulatory health care services

Hospitals

622

$707,003,478,000

Hospitals

Nursing and Residential Facilities

623

$167,962,335,000

Nursing and Residential Care Facilities

Museums, historical sites, & similar institutions

71211

$8,902,673,000

Museums

Library

American Library Association

Zoos

Parks

71213

71219

$2,762,604,000

$584,128,000

Zoos and Botanical Gardens

Nature parks & similar institutions

Amusement Park

7131

$13,373,596,000

Amusement Parks

Nursery schools /Day Care


Ski Facilities

6244

71392

$29,573,788,000

$2,295,286,000

Child Day Care Services

Ski Facilities

Homeless Shelter

Emergency Relief services

62422

62423

$3,845,485,000

$8,557,326,000

Community Housing Services

Emergency & other relief services

Food Banks

62421

$5,834,558,000

Community food services

Family services

Vocational Rehab services

6241

6243

$61,823,270,000

$11,606,773,000

Individual and family services

Vocational rehabilitation services

Fitness & Recreational Sports Ctrs & Skiing Facilities

71394

$21,580,073,000

Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers & Skiing Facilities

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

61162

$3,884,011,000

Sports and recreational instruction

Bowling Alley

71395

$3,438,918,000

Bowling Centers

Golf Course (semi-private: paid membership, but public access)

71391

$21,210,858,000

Golf Courses and Country Clubs

Miniature Golf Course

7139908

$2,480,719,000

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries

Recreational Boating Facility

71393

$4,071,080,000

Marinas

Fishing Pier or Platform

7139908

$2,480,719,000

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries

Shooting Facility

7139908

$2,480,719,000

All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries

Parking Garages

81293

$8,487,541,000

Parking lots & garages

Self Service Storage Facilities

53113

$6,164,615,000

Lessors of miniwarehouses & self-storage units

Source (unless otherwise noted): 2007 U.S. Economic Census

D. Consumer Price Index

The percentage change of the consumer price index (CPI) is applied to the 2007 Economic Census data to estimate the total sales receipts for 2010.

CPI: Annual Percentage Change

2002

1.6%

2003

2.3%

2004

2.7%

2005

3.4%

2006

3.2%

2007

2.80%

2008

3.80%

2009

-0.40%

     Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor

E. Percentage of Disability, by Type

The following table shows the percentage of the total U.S. population 15 years and older that reported a specific type of disability.

Disability Type Percent of Total U.S. Population 15 Years and older
Seeing/Hearing/Speaking
Difficulty seeing words/letters

3.40%

Difficulty hearing conversation

3.40%

Difficulty with speech

1.10%

Uses hearing aid

1.90%

Walking/Using Stairs
Total with a disability

11.90%

Uses a wheelchair or similar device

1.40%

Selected Physical Tasks
Difficulty reaching overhead

4.02%

Upper body limitation

8.20%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income Program Participation, 2005.

F. Income Adjustment Factors by Facility

Facilities either have a 60%, 100%, or 140% adjustment to the estimate of the base number of visit to demonstrate the homogeneity of its visitors' income and the impact of the lower average income for persons with disabilities on use of various facilities.

Facility Group Income Adjustment

Inns

60%

Hotels

60%

Motels

100%

Restaurants

60%

Motion Picture House

60%

Theatre / Concert Hall

60%

Stadiums

60%

Auditoriums

60%

Convention Centers

60%

Single Level Stores

60%

Shopping Malls

60%

Indoor Service Establishments

60%

Offices of Health Care Providers

140%

Hospitals

140%

Nursing Homes

140%

Terminal (private airports)

60%

Depots

60%

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

60%

Parks or zoos

60%

Amusement Parks

60%

Nursery schools - Daycare

60%

Elementary Private Schools

140%

Secondary Private Schools

60%

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

60%

Ski Facilities

60%

Homeless Shelter

140%

Food Banks

140%

Social Service Establishments

100%

Exercise Facilities

60%

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

60%

Bowling Alleys

60%

Golf Courses (private with public access)

60%

Golf Courses (private only)

60%

Miniature golf courses

60%

Recreational Boating Facilities

60%

Fishing Piers and Platforms

60%

Shooting Facilities

60%

Office Buildings

100%

Elementary Public Schools

100%

Secondary Public Schools

100%

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

100%

Public Housing

140%

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

100%

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

100%

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

100%

Parking Garages

60%

Self Service Storage Facilities

60%

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

60%

Stadiums (public)

60%

Auditoriums (public)

60%

Convention Centers (public)

60%

Hospitals (public)

100%

Nursing Homes (public)

140%

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

60%

Parks or zoos (public)

60%

Homeless Shelter (public)

140%

Exercise Facilities (public)

60%

Social Service Establishments (public)

100%

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)

60%

Miniature golf courses (public)

60%

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

60%

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

60%

Office Buildings (public)

100%

Parking Garages (public)

60%

Golf Courses (public)

60%

Restaurants (public)

60%

Amusement Parks (public)

60%

  Source: HDR Estimates

G. Time Use Survey

The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes an annual American Time Use Survey (ATUS), where a sample of the population keeps a diary of time spent doing daily activities. The conditional responses shown in the chart below contributed to the estimates of Facility Use and Travel time, components of the generalized use cost of a facility.

bar graph representing Americans use of their time in 2005


The following table lists the facilities included in the use premium benefits due to the requirements that affect the primary use of a visit, as listed in the second column. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) description and corresponding code that matches each facilities' primary function is listed in the third and fourth columns. The average time spent in these activities is listed in the last column.

Facility Reason for using facility as related to requirements ATUS Description ATUS code Time (hrs)
Inns

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010201

0.9

Hotels

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010202

0.9

Motels

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010203

0.9

Motion Picture House

wheelchair space, listening

watching a movie

120403

2.3

Theatre / Concert Hall

wheelchair space, listening

attending performing arts

120401

2.3

Stadiums

wheelchair space, listening

watching baseball, basketball, football, and soccer

Average of 130203, 130203, 130213, 130224

2.6

Auditoriums

wheelchair space, listening

attending performing arts

120401

2.3

Convention Centers

wheelchair space, listening

taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure

060101

7.0

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

wheelchair space, listening

attending a museum

120402

2.8

Parks or zoos

play, fishing

average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children, and fishing

Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 130112

6.3

Amusement Parks

wheelchair space, listening, play

average time spent playing sports (and not sports) with household children plus arts and entertainment not elsewhere classified, assuming 1 show is watched

Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 120499

0.9

Secondary Private Schools

wheelchair space, listening

taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure

060101

5.2

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

wheelchair space, listening, bathrooms, kitchen

taking a class, and for on-campus residents only (1/2 of total visitors): washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food prep and kitchen clean up

060102, 01020, 020201, and 020203

7.0

Homeless Shelter

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010203

0.9

Exercise Facilities

exercise

using cardiovascular equipment and weightlifting/ strength training

130128 and 130133

1.4

Miniature golf courses

minigolf

playing golf, assuming minigolf is 1/2 time golf game, and there are 4 players

130114

0.4

Fishing Piers and Platforms

fishing

fishing

130112

4.9

Elementary Public Schools

play

average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children

Average of 030103 and 030105

1.4

Secondary Public Schools

wheelchair space, listening

taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure

060101

5.2

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

wheelchair space, listening, bathrooms, kitchen

taking a class, and for on-campus residents only (1/2 of total visitors): washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food prep and kitchen clean up

060102, 01020, 020201, and 020203

7.0

Public Housing

bathroom, kitchen

washing, dressing and grooming oneself, food and drink prep, and kitchen clean up

010201, 020201, and 020203

2.3

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010203

0.9

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

010203

0.9

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

wheelchair space, listening

attending performing arts

120401

2.3

Stadiums (public)

wheelchair space, listening

watching baseball, basketball, football, and soccer

Average of 130203, 130203, 130213, 130224

2.6

Auditoriums (public)

wheelchair space, listening

attending performing arts

120401

2.3

Convention Centers (public)

wheelchair space, listening

taking a class for degree, certification, or licensure

060101

7.0

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

wheelchair space, listening

attending a museum

120402

2.8

Parks or zoos (public)

play, fishing

average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children, and fishing

Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 130112

6.3

Homeless Shelter (public)

bathroom

washing, dressing and grooming oneself

10201

0.9

Exercise Facilities (public)

exercise

using cardiovascular equipment and weightlifting/ strength training

130128 and 130133

1.4

Miniature golf courses (public)

minigolf

playing golf, assuming minigolf is 1/2 time golf game, and there are 4 players

130114

0.4

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

fishing

fishing

130112

4.9

Amusement Parks (public)

wheelchair space, listening, play

average time spent playing (including playing sports) with household children plus arts and entertainment not elsewhere classified, assuming 1 show is watched

Average of 030103 and 030105 plus 120499

0.9

H. Total Access Time per Facility

The graph below shows the averages of the preliminary RAP estimates for the most likely total access time per facility. The panelist responses match a list of facilities that was later expanded to define costs per facility. It was assumed that facilities that were originally grouped into these facility groups had equal access times.

the averages of the preliminary RAP estimates for the most likely total access time per facility

The following table presents the data of the average, minimum, maximum and median of the RAP panelist estimates of access time per facility. The final columns are the actual input used, the averages of the inputs.

SUMMARY OF PANEL INPUTS IN USE
TOTAL ACCESS TIME ESTIMATES IN HOURS AVERAGE MIN MAX MEDIAN

Low

High

Most Likely

Low

High

Most Likely

Low

High

Most Likely

Low

High

Most Likely

Low

High

Most Likely

Inns, Hotels, Motels

0.38

0.91

0.58

0.33

0.67

0.33

0.67

1.50

0.83

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.38

0.91

0.58

Restaurants

0.19

0.40

0.29

0.17

0.25

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.19

0.40

0.29

Motion Picture Houses

0.28

0.54

0.41

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.50

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.28

0.54

0.41

Stadiums

0.43

0.87

0.61

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.67

1.50

0.75

0.33

0.83

0.67

0.43

0.87

0.61

Auditoriums

0.36

0.70

0.52

0.25

0.67

0.50

0.67

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.36

0.70

0.52

Convention Centers

0.36

0.76

0.56

0.08

0.33

0.50

0.67

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.36

0.76

0.56

Single Level Stores

0.10

0.29

0.24

0.08

0.25

0.08

0.17

0.42

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.10

0.29

0.24

Multi-level stores

0.31

0.68

0.47

0.17

0.25

0.25

0.67

1.17

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.68

0.47

Indoor Service Establishments

0.13

0.33

0.22

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.13

0.33

0.22

Terminal, depot or other station

0.15

0.53

0.37

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.08

0.50

0.33

0.15

0.53

0.37

Offices of Health Care Providers

0.14

0.36

0.24

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.14

0.36

0.24

Hospitals and nursing homes

0.16

0.43

0.29

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.16

0.43

0.29

Museums

0.29

0.66

0.50

0.08

0.25

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.29

0.66

0.50

Parks or zoos

0.39

1.30

0.89

0.17

0.50

0.50

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.39

1.30

0.89

Amusement Parks

0.48

1.35

0.96

0.33

0.67

0.67

0.50

1.50

1.50

0.50

1.50

1.00

0.48

1.35

0.96

Social Service Est.

0.16

0.36

0.25

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.16

0.36

0.25

Homeless Shelters

0.31

0.61

0.46

0.08

0.17

0.17

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.61

0.46

Exercise Facilities

0.33

0.65

0.49

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

0.83

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.65

0.49

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

0.20

0.48

0.32

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.20

0.48

0.32

Bowling Alleys

0.17

0.35

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.35

0.25

Golf Courses

0.34

0.70

0.48

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.34

0.70

0.48

Recreational Boating Facilities

0.31

0.67

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.67

0.47

Fishing Piers and Platforms

0.33

0.70

0.49

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.83

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.70

0.49

Miniature golf courses

0.26

0.54

0.40

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.26

0.54

0.40

Shooting Facilities

0.31

0.63

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.63

0.47

Day Care Centers & Elementary Private Schools

0.31

0.63

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.63

0.47

Secondary Private Schools

0.31

0.65

0.47

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.83

0.50

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.31

0.65

0.47

Undergraduate & postgraduate private schools

0.35

0.78

0.56

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.50

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.35

0.78

0.56

Public schools

0.29

0.63

0.48

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

0.67

0.75

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.29

0.63

0.48

Office Buildings

0.46

0.93

0.69

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.46

0.93

0.69

State and local government housing

0.46

0.93

0.69

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.46

0.93

0.69

State and Local Judicial Facilities

0.44

0.96

0.71

0.17

0.67

0.50

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.44

0.96

0.71

State and Local Detention Facilities

0.53

1.11

0.76

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.75

1.50

0.83

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.53

1.11

0.76

State and Local Correctional Facilities

0.53

1.11

0.76

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.75

1.50

0.83

0.50

1.00

0.75

0.53

1.11

0.76


I. Market Price by Facility

The following table shows the estimated market price by facility group.

Facility Group Market Price

Inns

$75.00

Hotels

$150.00

Motels

$45.00

Restaurants

$8.00

Motion Picture House

$12.00

Theatre / Concert Hall

$40.00

Stadiums

$45.00

Auditoriums

$40.00

Convention Centers

$100.00

Single Level Stores

$150.00

Shopping Malls

$80.00

Indoor Service Establishments

$225.00

Offices of Health Care Providers

$400.00

Hospitals

$500.00

Nursing Homes

$240.00

Terminal (private airports)

$100.00

Depots

$5.00

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

$4.00

Parks or zoos

$4.00

Amusement Parks

$60.00

Nursery schools - Daycare

$50.00

Elementary Private Schools

$55.00

Secondary Private Schools

$55.00

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

$166.67

Ski Facilities

$50.00

Homeless Shelter

$50.00

Food Banks

$25.00

Social Service Establishments

$75.00

Exercise Facilities

$15.00

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

$10.00

Bowling Alleys

$15.00

Golf Courses (private with public access)

$80.00

Golf Courses (private only)

$100.00

Miniature golf courses

$5.00

Recreational Boating Facilities

$100.00

Fishing Piers and Platforms

$30.00

Shooting Facilities

$20.00

Office Buildings

$10.00

Elementary Public Schools

$55.56

Secondary Public Schools

$55.56

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

$83.33

Public Housing

$10.00

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

$2.00

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

$0.00

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

$0.00

Parking Garages

$5.00

Self Service Storage Facilities

$100.00

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

$40.00

Stadiums (public)

$45.00

Auditoriums (public)

$40.00

Convention Centers (public)

$100.00

Offices of Health Care Providers (public)

$400.00

Hospitals (public)

$500.00

Nursing Homes (public)

$240.00

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

$4.00

Parks or zoos (public)

$4.00

Homeless Shelter (public)

$50.00

Exercise Facilities (public)

$15.00

Social Service Establishments (public)

$75.00

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)

$10.00

Miniature golf courses (public)

$5.00

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

$100.00

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

$30.00

Office Buildings (public)

$10.00

Parking Garages (public)

$5.00

Golf Courses (public)

$80.00

Restaurants (public)

$8.00

Amusement Parks (public)

$60.00

Source: HDR estimates

J. Value of Time

4J1: Base Value of Times Per Facility

The value of time is estimated per facility group are based on Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor; Average Hourly Earnings of Production Workers for 2008 of the total private sector, not seasonally adjusted. This is reported as $20.32 an hour.

Facility Group Value of time

Inns

$8.50

Hotels

$8.50

Motels

$8.50

Restaurants

$8.50

Motion Picture House

$4.25

Theatre / Concert Hall

$4.25

Stadiums

$4.25

Auditoriums

$4.25

Convention Centers

$8.50

Single Level Stores

$4.25

Shopping Malls

$4.25

Indoor Service Establishments

$4.25

Offices of Health Care Providers

$8.50

Hospitals

$4.25

Nursing Homes

$4.25

Terminal (private airports)

$8.50

Depots

$8.50

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

$4.25

Parks or zoos

$4.25

Amusement Parks

$4.25

Nursery schools - Daycare

$0.85

Elementary Private Schools

$0.85

Secondary Private Schools

$0.85

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

$8.50

Ski Facilities

$4.25

Homeless Shelter

$4.25

Food Banks

$4.25

Social Service Establishments

$4.25

Exercise Facilities

$4.25

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

$4.25

Bowling Alleys

$4.25

Golf Courses (private with public access)

$4.25

Golf Courses (private only)

$4.25

Miniature golf courses

$4.25

Recreational Boating Facilities

$4.25

Fishing Piers and Platforms

$4.25

Shooting Facilities

$4.25

Office Buildings

$8.50

Elementary Public Schools

$0.85

Secondary Public Schools

$0.85

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

$8.50

Public Housing

$8.50

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

$8.50

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

$0.10

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

$0.10

Parking Garages

$8.50

Self Service Storage Facilities

$8.50

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

$4.25

Stadiums (public)

$4.25

Auditoriums (public)

$4.25

Convention Centers (public)

$8.50

Offices of Health Care Providers (public)

$8.50

Hospitals (public)

$4.25

Nursing Homes (public)

$4.25

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

$4.25

Parks or zoos (public)

$4.25

Homeless Shelter (public)

$4.25

Exercise Facilities (public)

$4.25

Social Service Establishments (public)

$4.25

Swimming pools (public)

$4.25

Miniature golf courses (public)

$4.25

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

$4.25

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

$4.25

Office Buildings (public)

$8.50

Parking Garages (public)

$8.50

Golf Courses (public)

$4.25

Restaurants (public)

$8.50

Amusement Parks (public)

$4.25

4J2: Time Premiums

The basis for value of time premiums is developed from independent literature from the transportation field, in which extensive research has been conducted on the value people place on quicker/easier access from one place to another as well as some analysis on the value of improved comfort during that travel experience. We have used commonly-used estimates from this literature to develop premiums for both access and use time. Specifically:

1. Change in Access Time: An increased quality of experience from access time is based on the difference between walking and traveling in a segregated (accessible) vehicle. This serves as a proxy for valuing the improved ability to access a facility and its amenities.

In 2004, Marcus von Wartburg and W.G. Waters reviewed current literature on the value of time savings and concluded that weighting walking time at twice the value of in-vehicle travel time was "the common convention in many jurisdictions" and "is consistent with recent evidence."[1]

Indeed, the Federal Transportation Administration issued official guidance in 1997 for evaluating the costs and benefits of transit projects stating that access time should be valued at twice the rate for local personal travel.[2]

2. Value of Use Time: The premium associated with sitting compared to standing.

While there appears to be much less research on the quality of the travel experience (outside of research on congestion discomfort), two authors have explicitly presented estimates that can be used as proxies. William Waters presents data that the difference between the value of time sitting versus standing is 20% of the prevailing wage rate. An older study (P.B. Goodwin) presents average premiums of 50% for sitting versus standing in either a public or segregated vehicle. This analysis uses an average of the results from these two studies or 35%.

Recommended Values for Travel Time for Seated and Standing Transit Passengers
Activity Value of time relative to prevailing wage rate

Adult Transit Passenger -- seated

50%

Adult Transit Passenger -- standing

70%

Source: William Waters, The Value of Times Savings for the Economic Valuation of Highway Investments in British Columbia, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1992 as discussed in Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis – Travel Time Costs, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, revised August 10, 2007.

Value of time Premiums Compared to Time Sitting in a Moving Vehicle (Sitting in Public Vehicle Time = 1)

Travel Activity Range of Value of Time Premiums Mean Premium

Traveling in a Public Vehicle

Sitting down

1

1

Standing up

1.5

1.5

Traveling in a Segregated Vehicle

Sitting down

1.25

1.25

Standing up

1.87

1.87


Source: Adapted from P.B. Goodwin, Human Effort and the Value of Travel Time, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, January 1976.

4J3: Manager Value of Time

The value of time for a manager to evaluate the new guidelines and determine if there is change in the facility he/she owns is based on the average wage rate for management occupations. This is reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 2008 to be $48.23 an hour.

K. Description of Benefits by Requirement

The following table describes the impact of the requirement in terms of time change and also describes the number of expected uses per hour or visit for each requirement in terms of the element it affects. The highlighted column defines the type of disability targeted by the requirement.

Index Requirement Type of Disability Description of benefit/cost per use of an element at a facility Expected number of uses per hour or per visit (given conditions related to requirement)
1

Public Entrances

Ambulatory

Time change due to the revision of the scoping requirement

Expected number of trips made to and from the public entrance

2

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

Ambulatory

Time saving in using automatic doors rather than using an inaccessible door; or waiting for a person to provide assistance

Expected number of times entering building with automatic doors

3

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible openings without assistance are available if automatic doors fail

Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility in the event of an emergency

4

Thresholds at Doorways

Ambulatory

Time savings in traveling over lower threshold time

Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility

5

Door and Gate Surfaces

Ambulatory

Time saving in opening door and not creating a trap or pinch point from uneven surfaces 10 inches above the bottom of the door; assumes that it is the time to overcome a trap or pinch point

Expected number of uses per hour of traveling through a door or gate; comparable to bathroom trips per hour

6

Location of Accessible Routes

Ambulatory

Time saving in using an accessible route in general circulation paths compared to more distant paths: assuming the route was once further away and now it is closer; additional time to go to destination; depends on size of facility

Expected number of trips made to and from destination

7

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

Ambulatory (employees only)

Time saving of greater access in employee work areas: quantify existing employees but not potential increase in employees due to new access

Expected number of trips made in common use circulation paths

8

Accessible Means of Egress

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible means of egress as defined by IBC; assumed to be similar to public entrances.

Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility

9-10

Stairs

Ambulatory

Time saving in using stairs with technical requirements including treads and risers rather than going more slowly or waiting for assistance

Expected number of times using stairs per hour

11

Handrails Along Walkways

Ambulatory

Time savings when using handrails along walkways rather than going more slowly or waiting for assistance

Expected number of times using handrails along walkways per hour

12

Handrails

Ambulatory

Time changes when using handrails with different accessibility features

Expected number of trips made to and from main destination of facility

13

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points Within Sites

Ambulatory

Time increase in moving around a facility in a car (including waiting for a car) or traveling independently more cautiously or less conveniently compared to having accessible buildings or elements connected through accessible routes

Expected number of trips made to and from sites within a facility visit

14

Standby Power for Lifts

Ambulatory

Time saving in using platform lift rather than requiring assistance or using circuitous route.

Expected use of platform lift in case of power outage

15

Power Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

Ambulatory

Time saving in using a power operated door independently that would close more securely than a manually closed door

Expected number of uses of a platform lift

16

Alterations to Existing Elevators

Seeing, Hearing and Wheelchair

Time saving in being able to take any elevator compared to waiting for one accessible elevator and not knowing whether the accessible had answered the call

Expected number of elevator uses per hour

17

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

Ambulatory

Time increase in using platform lift instead of an elevator

Expected number of uses per hour of a platform lift when staying or residing in a facility

18

Limited Use/Limited Application (LULA) and Private Residence Elevators

Ambulatory

Time increase in using LULA instead of regular elevator

Expected number of uses per hour of an elevator

19

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

Wheelchair only

Waiting time decrease for a van user to circle the lot, park further away or wait for a driver.

Expected number of trips made to and from parking space

20-21

Valet Parking and Mechanical Access Parking Garages

Ambulatory

Time saving in having an accessible loading zone at valet parking and mechanical access parking garages compared to using another accessible entrance to facility not at loading zone (assumes that main difference is the need to go to a different parking garage or drop off point, and then wait)

Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility

22

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

Ambulatory

Time saving in more accessible facility entrance options; waiting for a space near the accessible entrance or waiting for driver if dropped off

Expected number of trips made to and from a parking structure

23

Passenger Loading Zones

Ambulatory

Waiting time decrease for an accessible passenger loading zone in every continuous 100 linear feet of loading zone space rather than at least one accessible passenger loading zone

Expected number of trips made into and out of a facility

24

Parking Spaces

Ambulatory

Time savings in using the lot's accessible loading zone rather than locating an accessible parking space or loading zone elsewhere within the site

Expected number of trips made to and from the accessible loading zone

25

Parking Spaces (Signs)

Ambulatory

Waiting time increase for parking spots to become open where accessible spaces are not reserved for use by persons with disabilities

Expected number of trips made to and from a parking space

26

Passenger Loading Zones at Medical Care and Long-Term Facilities

Ambulatory

Time increase of walking more carefully in a passenger loading zone during inclement weather

Expected number of entrances/exits made into a facility during inclement weather

27

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

Ambulatory

Waiting time decrease for a toilet compartment in the men's bathroom

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

28

Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with Out-Swinging Doors

Ambulatory

Time saving in having approximately 9 square feet to move around within a toilet room; similar to requirement #30

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

29

Shower Spray Controls

Wheelchair and upper body limitation

Time saving in turning shower head on/off in hand held unit rather than reaching to on/off feature

Expected number of showers taken per visit

30

Urinals

Ambulatory

Time increase in traveling to a bathroom with an accessible urinal or waiting time for accessible toilet compartment to be available

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

31

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

Ambulatory

Waiting time increase for accessible single user toilet room where multiple single user toilet rooms are available

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

32

Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with In-Swinging Doors

Wheelchair only

Time increase in navigating smaller dimensions of bathroom, going in and turning around to close door

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

33

Water Closet Location and Rear Wall Grab Bar

Ambulatory

Time increase in using more caution when accessing and using shorter grab bar time

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

34

Patient Toilet Rooms

Ambulatory

Time increase in traveling to an accessible toilet room from intensive care patient sleeping room

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

35

Drinking Fountains

Wheelchair only

Time saving in forward approach access rather than parallel access

Expected number of uses per hour of a drinking fountain

36

Sinks

Wheelchair only (employees only)

Time saving in having accessible sink versus traveling to one that is accessible

Expected number of uses per hour of a sink

37

Side Reach

Wheelchair and having difficulty reaching overhead

Time saving of reaching to a lower maximum height on side reach parts such as paper towel dispensers in bathrooms, coat hooks, thermostats, fire-alarm pull stations, card readers, etc.

Expected number of uses per hour of certain operable parts

38-39

Sales and Service Counters

Wheelchair only

Waiting time increase for an accessible portion of the sales counter to be available, travel to an accessible counter, or any increase in the time to be served.

Expected number of times approaching a sales and service counter

40-41

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers

Ambulatory and upper body limitation

Time increase due to less accessible washing machine or clothes dryer

Expected number of uses of washing machines and clothes dryers

42

Self-Service Storage Facilities

Ambulatory

Time saving from using accessible access rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit

Expected number of uses of self-storage facility units

43

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

Ambulatory

Waiting time increase for someone to provide service assistance

Expected number of trips made to and from limited access space/ service only space

44

Operable Parts

Wheelchair and upper body limitation

Time increase in finding assistance

Expected uses of operable parts while at a facility

45

Bathrooms in Accessible Guest Rooms (vanities and water closet clearances)

Ambulatory

Time saving in having more bathroom vanity space instead of using another countertop elsewhere in the room

Expected number of bathroom uses per hour

46

Operable Windows

Wheelchair and upper body limitation

Time saving in opening and closing an operable window compared to a non-operable window; or waiting for assistance.

Expected number of uses per hour of an operable window

47-48

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991 Standards]/[UFAS]

Hearing

Time saving in getting attention of resident faster with audible and visual signals at doorbell rather than only audible signals; similar to requirement #57

Expected number of unaccompanied entrances

49

Galley Kitchen Clearances

Wheelchair only

Time saving in having 13 additional square feet in a galley kitchen to turn around in instead of forward in and backing out

Expected number of uses per hour of a kitchen

50

Shower Compartments

Wheelchair only

Time increase due to lessened usability for some users

Expected number of showers taken

51

Location of Accessible Routes to Stages

Ambulatory

Time saving in using direct route to stage rather than circuitous backstage ramp; assumes that use of facility would not necessarily involve stage access so that the likelihood of requiring access scales down the potential use

Expected number of times access to the stage from general seating area would be required

52

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

Wheelchair only

Time savings in having one's own seating area and maneuvering space and not having to move for general circulation

Expected likelihood of desiring a wheelchair space

53

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

Ambulatory

Time saving in accessing lawn seating area efficiently rather than without an accessible entrance; assumes that current access is possible but circuitous

Expected number of trips made back and forth to seating area

54

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

Ambulatory - non-wheelchair

Time savings for persons who use a walker or cane

Expected number of trips made to and from seating area in assembly areas

55

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

Wheelchair only

Reduction in wheelchair spaces assuming there is a shortage of spaces would reduce the use of a facility

Expected reduction of number of uses of a facility

56

Accessible Routes to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities

Ambulatory

Time increase in traveling to an accessible tiered dining area in a sports facility

Expected number of trips made to and from a dining area in a sports facility

57

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

Ambulatory

Time increase to travel to a non-press box seat elsewhere

Expected number of trips made to and from a press box

58

Public TTYs

Hearing

Waiting time decrease for a public TTY phone when there are more available; assumes that a TTY conversation may take longer and phone calls on public phones are at most 5 minutes

Expected number of uses per hour of a public TTY phone

59

Public Telephone Volume Controls

Hearing

Time saving in using higher decibel requirement for public telephones rather than using Telephone Relay Service (involves calling a public service to provide translation) or TTY phone

Expected number of uses per hour of a public telephone

60

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

Hearing

Time saving in using audible and visible signals to gain admission to a facility rather than only audible signals; or having to wait for assistance to enter

Expected number of unaccompanied entrances

61

ATMs and Fare Machines

Seeing

Time saving in using tactilely discernable keys and audible tones at ATM and fare machines as opposed to using a teller or some other service person

Expected number of uses of an ATM or fare machine per visit

62

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

Hearing – persons using hearing aid

Time saving in using assistive listening systems with technical specifications compared to learning about what may have been missed if not heard; assumes this applies mostly to lectures and public speaking, not music (which if not heard the whole experience may be lost)

Likelihood of requiring the assistive listening system

63

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

Hearing

Impact is only facilitating installation; there is no change in accessibility that would impact the access time

Expected requiring visible fire alarm before alteration; assumes low probability of a fire

64-65

Detectable Warnings

Seeing

Time increase of waiting for assistance to safely maneuver curb ramps, hazardous vehicular areas, and reflecting pools where detectable warnings are not required

Likelihood of traveling alone at curb ramps, hazardous vehicular areas and reflecting pools

66

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

Hearing

Waiting time increase for an assistive listening system, if there is regular turnover of devices and there is a shortage.

Likelihood of requiring the assistive listening system

67

Accessible Courtroom Stations

Wheelchair only (employees only)

Time saving in having a clear forward approach to all courtroom stations compared to more circuitous approach

Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station

68

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

Wheelchair only

Time saving in using ramp, elevator or platform lift to attorney areas and witness stands compared to stairs; similar to requirement #65

Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station

69

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

Ambulatory (judges and court personnel)

Time saving in having access to a raised station compared to more circuitous approach; similar to requirement #65

Expected number of required uses of a courtroom station

70

Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

Ambulatory

Time savings in using an accessible route

Expected number of uses of the machines and equipment

71

Accessible Exercise Machines and Equipment

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible machines rather than waiting for assistance to access equipment

Expected number of uses of accessible machines and equipment

72 & 111

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible sauna and steam room rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit the room

Expected number of uses of saunas and steam rooms

73

Accessible Lockers

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible lockers rather than waiting for assistance to open and close lockers and maneuvers about them

Expected number of uses of locker rooms

74

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms or Locker Rooms

Ambulatory

For stadium and indoor sales establishments, results in time savings of changing and trying on clothes on location instead of traveling to and from home

Expected number of uses of fitting rooms per visit

75

Wheelchair Space in Team or Player Seating Areas

Wheelchair only

Time saving in having access to a wheelchair space rather creating a space; assumes that a space would be created as needed

Expected number of entrances of requiring a wheelchair space in team or player seating area

76

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible route instead a circuitous route

Expected number of trips to and from the court floor area

77

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible bowling lanes rather than waiting for assistance to access bowling lanes

Expected number of trips made to and from bowling lanes at a bowling facility

78

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

Ambulatory

Time saving in using turning space instead of having to maneuver outside of firing position

Expected number of uses of each type of firing position

79 & 112

Primary Accessible Means of Entry to Pools

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible means of entry to pools rather than waiting for assistance with entering and exiting the pool

Expected number of entrances and exits into and out of a pool at pool facility

80

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

Ambulatory

Time saving in using sloped access to wading pools rather than waiting for assistance to enter and exit

Expected number of entrances and exits into and out of a wading pool while at a pool facility

81

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible entry to spa rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of entrances and exits of a spa

82

Accessible Route to Boating Facilities

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible routes to boat slips and boarding piers rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of entrances and exits of boat slips and boarding piers

83-84

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)/(Alt/BR)

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible boarding piers rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of entrances and exits of piers

85-86

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)/(Alt/BR)

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible boat slip rather than waiting for assistance to access boat

Expected number of uses of a boat slip at a boating facility

87

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible route rather than waiting for assistance to access fishing pier and platform

Expected number of entrances and exits of fishing pier and platform

88

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible fishing piers rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of uses of fishing pier

89

Accessible Route to Golf Course

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of uses of elements and spaces in golf course

90-91

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens, and Weather Stations (NC)/(Alt/BR)

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible elements from golf car rather than waiting for assistance to access areas or using more circuitous route

Expected number of uses of teeing grounds, putting greens, and weather stations at golf courses

92

Accessible Practice Putting Greens, Practice Teeing Grounds, and Teeing Stations at Driving Ranges

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible elements from golf car rather than waiting for assistance to access areas or using more circuitous route

Expected number of uses of practice putting greens, practice teeing grounds, and practice teeing stations in driving ranges

93

Accessible Routes to Mini Golf Holes

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible routes to holes rather than having assistance or using more circuitous route

Expected number of entrances and exits to holes

94

Accessible Mini Golf Holes

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible holes rather than waiting for assistance or using less straightforward approach to holes

Expected number of holes accessed at miniature golf courses

95

Accessible Route to Amusement Rides

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance or using more circuitous route

Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park

96

Wheelchair Space,  Transfer Seat or Transfer Device for Amusement Ride

Wheelchair only

Time saving in using wheelchair space rather than waiting for assistance to move in and out of seat

Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park

97

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Areas of Amusement Ride

Wheelchair only

Time saving in using wheelchair space rather than waiting for assistance to move in and out of seat

Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park

98

Signs at Amusement Rides

Ambulatory

Time saving in waiting only in lines for accessible rides

Expected number of rides used per visit of amusement park

99, 101, 103

Accessible Route to Play Components

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible routes rather than waiting for assistance to access play components

Expected number of entrances and exits of play components

100, 102, 104

Accessible Play Components

Ambulatory

Time saving in using accessible play components rather than waiting for assistance

Expected number of uses of play components

106

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing

Time saved in accessing all levels of dorms rather than socializing elsewhere

Expected number of visits to other floors (visiting friends, study areas, etc. on other floors)

107

Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing

Waiting time increase for assistance from detention officers rather than being able to access cell independently

Expected number of uses of accessible features inside the cell

108

Communication Accessible Prison Cell

Ambulatory, hearing, and/or seeing

Waiting time increase for assistance from detention officers rather than being able to access cell independently

Expected number of uses of accessible features inside the cell

109

Social Service Establishments – Elevator Access (NC)

Ambulatory

Benefits are not estimated

Benefits are not estimated

110

Social Service Establishments – Clear Floor Space around Beds

Ambulatory

Time saving in transferring into a bed independently compared to waiting for assistance

Expected number of uses of bed

113

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Turning Space

Ambulatory

Time saving in having additional square feet in a kitchen to turn around in instead of forward in and backing out

Expected number of uses per hour of a kitchen

114

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Work Surfaces

Ambulatory

Time saving for using an accessible portion of the counter that is available, instead of traveling to an accessible counter

Expected number of times approaching a kitchen counter

115 & 116

Secondary Accessible Means of Entry into Pools (NC/ALT)

Ambulatory

Half of the time saving in using accessible means of entry to pools rather than waiting for assistance with entering and exiting the pool

Half of the expected number of entrances and exits into and out of a pool at pool facility

117

Social Service Establishments – Roll-in Shower

Ambulatory

Time savings due to lessened usability for some users

Expected number of showers taken

L. Time Change / Expected Number of Uses Input

The following charts are the verified RAP panel data of the changes in access time and expected number of uses per element based on the description of each requirement's impact. For requirements for which no data was collected specifically these tables show the estimates of the time change and expected number of uses in use, which are assumed to be equal to a requirement for which data was collected.

TIME CHANGE IN HOURS SUMMARY OF PANEL INPUTS IN USE
AVERAGE MIN MAX MEDIAN
Requirement

Low

High

Most likely

Low

High

Most likely

Low

High

Most likely

Low

High

Most likely

Low

High

Most likely

Public Entrances

-0.08

0.23

0.09

-0.25

0.00

0.00

0.08

0.33

0.25

-0.08

0.25

0.08

-0.08

0.23

0.09

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

0.02

0.24

0.08

0.02

0.07

0.05

0.05

1.00

0.08

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.02

0.24

0.08

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

0.02

0.31

0.08

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.02

0.31

0.08

Thresholds at Doorways

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.02

0.01

Door and Gate Surfaces

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.03

Location of Accessible Routes

0.08

0.32

0.08

0.08

0.25

0.08

0.08

0.33

0.08

0.08

0.33

0.08

0.08

0.32

0.08

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

0.03

0.35

0.19

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.03

1.67

0.83

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.03

0.35

0.19

Accessible Means of Egress

0.02

0.25

0.08

0.02

0.25

0.08

0.02

0.25

0.08

0.02

0.25

0.08

0.02

0.25

0.08

Stairs (NC)

0.02

0.19

0.09

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.02

0.19

0.09

Stairs (ALT/BR)

0.02

0.19

0.09

Handrails Along Walkways

0.17

0.32

0.24

0.17

0.25

0.17

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.32

0.24

Handrails

0.00

0.06

0.03

-0.08

0.02

0.00

0.17

0.33

0.25

-0.02

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.06

0.03

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

0.17

1.00

0.37

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.67

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.37

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

0.14

0.40

0.19

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.33

1.50

0.50

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.14

0.40

0.19

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

0.08

0.18

0.11

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.08

0.33

0.12

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.08

0.18

0.11

Alterations to Existing Elevators

0.02

0.23

0.06

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.08

1.50

0.17

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.23

0.06

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

0.06

0.13

0.09

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.13

0.09

"LULA" and Private Residence Elevators

0.06

0.11

0.09

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.08

0.17

0.17

0.05

0.08

0.08

0.06

0.11

0.09

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

0.20

0.96

0.39

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.20

0.96

0.39

Valet Parking Garages

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

Mechanical Access Parking Garages

0.17

1.00

0.33

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

0.18

1.00

0.51

0.17

1.00

0.50

0.25

1.00

0.58

0.17

1.00

0.50

0.18

1.00

0.51

Passenger Loading Zones

0.19

0.44

0.31

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.33

1.00

0.50

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.19

0.44

0.31

Parking Spaces

0.09

0.41

0.20

0.08

0.33

0.08

0.17

1.00

0.50

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.09

0.41

0.20

Parking Spaces (Signs)

0.09

0.36

0.18

0.02

0.08

0.02

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.09

0.36

0.18

Passenger Loading Zones (Medical / Long-Term Care)

0.14

0.48

0.25

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.14

0.48

0.25

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

0.16

0.33

0.25

0.08

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.16

0.33

0.25

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - out swinging door

0.02

0.33

0.09

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.02

0.33

0.09

Shower Spray Controls

0.02

0.09

0.06

0.02

0.08

0.05

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.02

0.08

0.05

0.02

0.09

0.06

Urinals

0.09

0.30

0.15

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.08

0.17

0.12

0.09

0.30

0.15

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

0.04

0.48

0.20

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.17

0.50

0.33

0.02

0.50

0.17

0.04

0.48

0.20

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - in swinging door

0.03

0.48

0.15

0.02

0.33

0.03

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.02

0.50

0.17

0.03

0.48

0.15

Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

0.01

0.10

0.02

0.00

0.03

0.00

0.03

0.50

0.05

0.00

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.10

0.02

Patient Toilet Rooms

0.02

0.43

0.21

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.03

0.75

0.33

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.43

0.21

Drinking Fountains

0.02

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.08

0.03

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.04

0.03

Sinks

0.02

0.06

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.02

0.02

0.17

0.03

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.06

0.03

Side Reach

0.02

0.20

0.07

0.02

0.17

0.02

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.17

0.03

0.02

0.20

0.07

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

0.17

1.00

0.27

0.17

1.00

0.17

0.17

1.00

0.42

0.17

1.00

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.27

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

0.17

1.00

0.27

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

0.10

0.39

0.25

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.25

0.75

0.50

0.08

0.29

0.17

0.10

0.39

0.25

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

0.10

0.39

0.25

Self-Service Storage Facility Spaces

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.17

0.25

0.17

0.08

0.13

0.00

0.16

0.25

0.17

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

Operable Parts

0.17

0.41

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.25

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.17

0.41

0.25

Bathrooms with vanities and water closet clearance out-swinging doors

0.02

0.12

0.05

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.33

0.08

0.02

0.08

0.03

0.02

0.12

0.05

Operable Windows

0.02

0.33

0.18

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.33

0.25

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.33

0.18

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991]

0.02

1.00

0.31

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.67

0.02

1.00

0.25

0.02

1.00

0.31

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [UFAS]

0.02

1.00

0.31

Galley Kitchen Clearances

0.02

0.11

0.07

0.02

0.05

0.03

0.05

0.33

0.25

0.02

0.08

0.04

0.02

0.11

0.07

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

0.04

0.19

0.07

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.08

0.67

0.17

0.02

0.08

0.05

0.04

0.19

0.07

Location of Accessible Route to Stages

0.04

0.27

0.12

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.08

0.67

0.25

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.04

0.27

0.12

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

0.03

0.08

0.05

0.03

0.08

0.05

0.03

0.08

0.05

0.03

0.08

0.05

0.03

0.08

0.05

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

0.06

0.24

0.13

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.17

0.50

0.20

0.03

0.17

0.14

0.06

0.24

0.13

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

0.16

0.50

0.32

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.33

0.17

0.50

0.33

0.16

0.50

0.32

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

n/a

Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

0.19

0.75

0.39

0.08

0.25

0.17

0.50

1.50

0.75

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.19

0.75

0.39

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

Public TTYS

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

0.17

1.00

0.33

Public Telephone Volume Controls

0.09

0.21

0.15

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.09

0.21

0.15

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

0.02

1.00

0.23

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.50

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.23

ATMs and Fare Machines

0.02

1.00

0.23

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.42

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.23

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

0.08

1.13

0.47

0.08

1.00

0.25

0.08

2.00

2.00

0.08

1.00

0.25

0.08

1.13

0.47

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

0.00

0.08

0.02

0.00

0.02

0.00

0.02

0.33

0.17

0.00

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.08

0.02

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

0.02

1.00

0.20

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.33

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.20

Detectable Warnings (technical)

0.02

1.00

0.20

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

0.02

1.13

0.32

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

2.00

1.00

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.13

0.32

Accessible Courtroom Stations

0.04

0.17

0.09

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.05

0.20

0.12

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.04

0.17

0.09

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

0.04

0.21

0.10

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.07

0.50

0.17

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.04

0.21

0.10

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

0.05

0.43

0.09

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.17

2.00

0.12

0.03

0.17

0.08

0.05

0.43

0.09

Primary Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.25

Accessible Exercise Machines and Equipment

0.17

0.50

0.26

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.17

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.50

0.26

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms

0.09

0.63

0.29

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.50

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.09

0.63

0.29

Accessible Lockers

0.02

1.00

0.22

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.50

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.22

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

0.02

0.94

0.23

0.02

0.50

0.17

0.02

1.00

0.33

0.02

1.00

0.17

0.02

0.94

0.23

Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

0.03

0.19

0.10

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.08

0.33

0.17

0.02

0.17

0.08

0.03

0.19

0.10

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

0.10

0.19

0.15

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.17

0.33

0.25

0.08

0.17

0.13

0.10

0.19

0.15

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

0.09

0.52

0.21

0.08

0.50

0.17

0.17

0.67

0.33

0.08

0.50

0.17

0.09

0.52

0.21

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

0.06

0.12

0.09

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.10

0.17

0.13

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.12

0.09

Accessible Means of Entry to Pools

0.09

0.52

0.25

0.08

0.50

0.10

0.17

0.67

0.50

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.09

0.52

0.25

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

0.09

0.50

0.24

0.08

0.50

0.08

0.17

0.50

0.33

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.09

0.50

0.24

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

0.10

0.55

0.27

0.08

0.50

0.17

0.17

0.75

0.33

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.10

0.55

0.27

Accessible Route to Boating Facilities

0.10

0.64

0.30

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.42

0.08

0.58

0.29

0.10

0.64

0.30

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

0.10

0.65

0.34

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

1.00

0.50

0.08

0.50

0.33

0.10

0.65

0.34

Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

0.10

0.65

0.34

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

0.11

0.56

0.32

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.25

0.75

0.50

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.11

0.56

0.32

Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

0.11

0.56

0.32

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

0.10

0.56

0.31

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.75

0.42

0.08

0.50

0.29

0.10

0.56

0.31

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

0.10

0.56

0.31

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

0.75

0.42

0.08

0.50

0.29

0.10

0.56

0.31

Accessible Route to Golf Courses

0.16

0.70

0.43

0.08

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.08

0.54

0.38

0.16

0.70

0.43

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens and Weather Stations (Alt/BR)

0.56

1.13

0.71

0.50

1.00

0.67

1.00

2.00

1.00

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.56

1.13

0.71

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens and Weather Stations (NC)

0.56

1.13

0.71

Accessible Practice Grounds at Driving Ranges

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

Accessible Route to Mini Golf Holes

0.50

1.13

0.71

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

2.00

1.00

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.13

0.71

Accessible to Mini Golf Holes

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

1.00

0.67

Accessible Route to Amusement Rides

0.50

0.96

0.66

0.33

0.67

0.50

0.67

1.00

0.75

0.50

1.00

0.67

0.50

0.96

0.66

Wheelchair Space , Transfer Seat or Transfer Device for Amusement Ride

0.44

0.94

0.55

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.44

0.94

0.55

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area of Amusement Ride

0.44

0.94

0.55

0.25

0.50

0.33

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.44

0.94

0.55

Signs at Amusement Rides

0.09

0.67

0.28

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.17

1.50

0.42

0.08

0.50

0.25

0.09

0.67

0.28

Accessible Route to Play Components

0.35

0.52

0.43

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.50

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.35

0.52

0.43

Accessible Play Components

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

0.50

1.00

0.58

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.08

0.17

0.00

0.00

2.62

1.00

Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.08

0.17

0.00

0.00

2.00

1.00

Communication Accessible Prison Cell

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.33

0.50

0.42

0.08

0.17

0.00

0.00

2.00

1.00

Social Service Establishments – Clear Floor Space around Beds

0.00

2.50

1.00

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Turning Space

0.02

0.11

0.07

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Work Surfaces

0.17

1.00

0.27

Secondary Accessible Means of Entry into Pools

0.05

0.26

0.13

Social Service Establishments – Roll-in Shower

0.04

0.19

0.07

 

 

Number of uses per 100 hours or 100 visits AVERAGE MIN MAX MEDIAN IN USE
Requirement Low High Most likely Low High Most likely Low High Most likely Low High Most likely Low High Most likely
Public Entrances

100

400

213

100

400

200

100

400

300

100

400

200

100

400

213

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

100

371

200

100

200

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

371

200

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

1

4

2

1

4

2

1

4

2

1

4

2

1

4

2

Thresholds at Doorways

100

222

181

100

200

100

100

400

200

100

200

200

100

222

181

Door and Gate Surfaces

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

Location of Accessible Routes

13

48

27

2

4

2

100

400

200

2

4

2

13

48

27

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

46

164

116

2

10

5

200

600

500

2

20

8

46

164

116

Accessible Means of Egress

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Stairs (NC)

1

10

5

1

10

2

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

Stairs (ALT/BR)

Handrails Along Walkways

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

1

10

5

Handrails

88

200

150

0

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

88

200

150

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

43

128

69

20

60

30

200

600

300

20

60

30

43

128

69

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

2

9

5

1

5

3

2

10

5

2

10

5

2

9

5

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

40

98

51

20

60

30

200

400

200

20

60

30

40

98

51

Alterations to Existing Elevators

2

10

5

2

10

5

2

10

5

2

10

5

2

10

5

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

"LULA" and Private Residence Elevators

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

10

20

15

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Valet Parking Garages

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Mechanical Access Parking Garages

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Passenger Loading Zones

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Parking Spaces

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Parking Spaces (Signs)

125

406

222

100

350

200

300

500

400

100

400

200

125

406

222

Passenger Loading Zones (Medical / Long-Term Care)

138

419

238

100

350

200

400

600

500

100

400

200

138

419

238

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

5

100

50

5

100

50

5

100

50

5

100

50

5

100

50

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - out swinging door

1

91

46

1

20

15

1

100

50

1

100

50

1

91

46

Shower Spray Controls

2

100

50

2

100

50

2

100

50

2

100

50

2

100

50

Urinals

1

7

5

1

5

3

1

20

15

1

5

3

1

7

5

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

1

7

5

1

5

3

1

20

15

1

5

3

1

7

5

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - in swinging door

1

7

5

1

5

3

1

20

15

1

5

3

1

7

5

Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

2

11

6

1

10

3

3

20

15

2

10

3

2

11

6

Patient Toilet Rooms

1

7

4

1

5

3

4

15

5

1

5

3

1

7

4

Drinking Fountains

1

6

4

1

5

3

1

10

10

1

5

3

1

6

4

Sinks

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

Side Reach

1

20

15

1

5

2

1

80

80

1

5

2

1

20

15

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

113

250

175

100

200

150

200

400

300

100

200

150

113

250

175

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

Self-Service Storage Facility Spaces

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

1

3

2

1

3

2

1

3

2

1

3

2

1

3

2

Operable Parts

1

50

20

1

50

20

1

50

20

1

50

20

1

50

20

Bathrooms with vanities and water closet clearance out-swinging doors

100

675

178

100

5

15

100

6,000

500

100

5

20

100

675

178

Operable Windows

12

49

29

1

2

2

100

400

200

1

2

2

12

49

29

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991]

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [UFAS]

Galley Kitchen Clearances

1

75

24

1

5

2

5

400

150

1

5

2

1

75

24

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

3

15

7

2

10

2

10

30

28

2

10

2

3

15

7

Location of Accessible Route to Stages

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

1

5

2

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

13

133

34

2

100

10

100

400

200

2

100

10

13

133

34

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

24

156

60

2

100

10

200

600

400

2

100

10

24

156

60

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

n/a

Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

89

400

200

3

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

89

400

200

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

43

76

47

20

30

25

200

400

200

20

30

25

43

76

47

Public TTYS

1

20

10

1

20

10

1

20

10

1

20

10

1

20

10

Public Telephone Volume Controls

1

2

2

1

2

2

2

4

3

1

2

2

1

2

2

Two-Way Communication Systems at Entrances

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

100

200

150

ATMs and Fare Machines

133

244

194

100

200

150

400

600

500

100

200

150

133

244

194

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

2

10

4

0

10

0

2

10

5

2

10

5

2

10

4

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

6

17

12

5

10

6

10

56

50

5

10

6

6

17

12

Detectable Warnings (technical)

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

5

10

8

5

10

8

5

10

8

5

10

8

5

10

8

Accessible Courtroom Stations

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

1

5

4

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

14

113

29

2

100

4

100

200

200

2

100

4

14

113

29

Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

200

500

300

200

500

300

200

500

300

200

500

300

200

500

300

Accessible Exercise Machines and Equipment

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms

5

21

20

5

10

8

5

100

100

5

10

8

5

21

20

Accessible Lockers

30

63

48

30

50

35

30

100

100

30

50

35

30

63

48

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

40

98

45

30

80

35

100

200

100

30

80

35

40

98

45

Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

3

21

18

2

5

3

5

100

100

2

5

3

3

21

18

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

100

267

192

100

200

150

100

600

400

100

200

150

100

267

192

Accessible Means of Entry to Pools

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

93

371

186

50

200

100

100

400

200

100

400

200

93

371

186

Accessible Route to Boating Facilities

100

400

225

100

400

200

100

400

400

100

400

200

100

400

225

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

100

400

225

100

400

200

100

400

400

100

400

200

100

400

225

Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

100

400

225

100

400

200

100

400

400

100

400

200

100

400

225

Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

100

400

213

100

400

200

100

400

300

100

400

200

100

400

213

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

100

400

200

Accessible Route to Golf Courses

400

600

500

400

600

500

400

600

500

400

600

500

400

600

500

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens and Weather Stations (Alt/BR)

200

600

400

200

600

400

200

600

400

200

600

400

200

600

400

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens and Weather Stations (NC)

Accessible Practice Grounds at Driving Ranges

200

400

300

200

400

300

200

400

300

200

400

300

200

400

300

Accessible Route to Mini golf Holes

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

Accessible to Mini golf Holes

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

900

1,800

950

Accessible Route to Amusement Rides

78

173

113

20

30

25

300

900

500

20

30

25

78

173

113

Wheelchair Space, Transfer Seat or Transfer Device for Amusement Ride

58

153

89

10

20

15

300

900

500

10

20

15

58

153

89

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area of Amusement Ride

21

43

38

10

20

15

100

200

200

10

20

15

21

43

38

Signs at Amusement Rides

17

33

21

5

10

8

100

200

100

5

10

8

17

33

21

Accessible Route to Play Components

43

85

53

20

40

25

200

400

250

20

40

25

43

85

53

Accessible Play Components

43

85

53

20

40

25

200

400

250

20

40

25

43

85

53

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.0

0

0.3

0.2

Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

0.000

0.417

0.250

Communication Accessible Prison Cell

0.000

0.417

0.250

Social Service Establishments – Clear Floor Space around Beds

0.000

0.292

0.208

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Turning Space

0.340

2.093

0.890

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Work Surfaces

1.000

2.000

1.500

Secondary Accessible Means of Entry into Pools

0.500

2.000

1.000

Social Service Establishments – Roll-in Shower

0.031

0.153

0.071


M. Likelihood of Realizing Benefits

This table represents the assumptions regarding the likelihood that a typical user would experience the benefits from a changed element at each visit. For instance, some elements will only become active/used during a power outage; others are not likely to be encountered at every visit. The high and low values that create the range of the likelihood are plus and minus 10 percentage points of the most likely values if the most likely value is less than 50%, or plus and minus 20 percentage points of the most likely values if the most likely value is greater than or equal to 50%.

In consultation with the Department, HDR/HLB determined the likelihood of experiencing benefits from individual requirements grouped into one of several categories based upon the type of time savings resulting from each requirement and the likelihood that benefits would occur.  The categories were then ranked from least likely to most likely and assigned conservative estimates of the likelihood of experiencing benefits. Essentially, the categories are:

  • At the lowest end of the scale were time savings that would result from an emergency or power outage, such as the use of visible alarms in emergency situations. The estimate of 0.0001% was chosen to reflect the very low likelihood of such occurrence;
  • The next category included technical and scoping requirements for washers and dryers. A likelihood of 0.02% was chosen to incorporate the percentage of laundromats in the facility grouping;
  • Several requirements were grouped together with a 0.1% likelihood of experiencing benefits. These requirements mostly relate certain equipment usage requirements and several requirements in stadiums;
  • Two requirements were given likelihoods of 1.0% (lawn seating in assembly areas and raised courtroom stations not for members of the public);
  • A large number of requirements (more than 50), primarily those involving waiting time savings to use an element or access a facility, were given likelihoods of 5%;
  • Several requirements were group in a category with a 25% likelihood of users experiencing benefits, including most relating to showers and bathrooms and travel pathways;
  • Two requirements were given likelihoods of 50% (relating to shooting facilities and to dressing rooms); and
  • A little more than a dozen requirements were grouped into a category of 90% likelihood of experiencing benefits, including those relating to stairs, side reach, vanities in lodging facilities, and galley kitchen clearances. 
ID Requirement Most Likely Comments
1

Public Entrances

25%

likelihood of approaching entrance and having to travel further distance to find accessible entrance

2

Maneuvering Clearance or Standby Power for Automatic Doors

0.0001%

probability of power outage

3

Automatic Door Break-Out Openings

0.0001%

if emergency occurs

4

Thresholds at Doorways

25%

likelihood of traveling through a doorway that is affected

5

Door and Gate Surfaces

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

6

Location of Accessible Routes

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

7

Common Use Circulation Paths in Employee Work Areas

25%

likelihood of traveling through a path that is affected

8

Accessible Means of Egress

25%

likelihood of traveling through a doorway that is affected

9

Stairs (NC)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

10

Stairs (ALT/BR)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

11

Handrails Along Walkways

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

12

Handrails

5%

full access time estimate would be unlikely to occur during facility visit

13

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

14

Standby Power for Platform Lifts

0.0001%

if power goes out

15

Power-Operated Doors for Platform Lifts

25%

likelihood of using platform lift in facility

16

Alterations to Existing Elevators

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

17

Platform Lifts in Hotel Guest Rooms and Dwelling Units

0.10%

likelihood of using platform lift and staying in a multi story hotel guest room

18

"LULA" and Private Residence Elevators

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

19

Van Accessible Parking Spaces

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

20

Valet Parking Garages

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

21

Mechanical Access Parking Garages

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

22

Direct Access Entrances from Parking Structures

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

23

Passenger Loading Zones

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

24

Parking Spaces

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

25

Parking Spaces (Signs)

5%

assumes people arrive in other modes and do not need to park, full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

26

Passenger Loading Zones at Medical Care and Long-Term Care Facilities

25%

access time change benefits only occur during inclement weather

27

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

5%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

28

Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with Out-Swinging Doors

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

29

Shower Spray Controls

25%

likelihood of using shower in any facility visit

30

Urinals

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

31

Multiple Single-User Toilet Rooms

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

32

Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with In-Swinging Doors

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

33

Water Closet Location and Rear Grab Bar

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

34

Patient Toilet Rooms

25%

likelihood of using bathroom in any facility visit

35

Drinking Fountains

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

36

Sinks

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

37

Side Reach

90%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

38

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

39

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

40

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (technical)

0.020%

adjust for % of Laundromats in facility groups

41

Washing Machines and Clothes Dryers (Scoping)

0.020%

adjust for % of Laundromats in facility groups

42

Self-Service Storage Facility Spaces

25%

 
43

Limited Access Spaces and Machinery Spaces

25%

likelihood of using limited access spaces as a visitor of a facility

44

Operable Parts

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

45

Bathrooms with vanities and water closet clearance out-swinging doors

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

46

Operable Windows

25%

accounts for seasonally adjusted

47

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [1991]

0.0001%

probability of power outage

48

Dwelling Units with Communication Features [UFAS]

0.0001%

probability of power outage

49

Galley Kitchen Clearances

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

50

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

25%

likelihood of using shower in any facility visit

51

Location of Accessible Route to Stages

0.10%

likelihood of person in audience is called to stage

52

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

53

Lawn Seating in Assembly Areas

1.0%

low likelihood of use of lawn compared to house seating

54

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

5%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

55

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

5%

does not affect access time

56

Accessible Route to Tiered Dining Areas in Sports Facilities (NC)

0.10%

likelihood of visiting tiered dining area during visit

57

Accessible Route to Press Boxes

0.10%

likelihood of visiting press box during visit

58

Public TTYS

0.10%

accounts for email and SMS

59

Public Telephone Volume Controls

0.10%

accounts for cell phone users

60

Two-Way Communication Systems at entrances

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

61

ATMs and Fare Machines

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

62

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

0.10%

likelihood of using affected machines at a visit

63

Visible Alarms in Alterations to Existing Facilities

0.0001%

assumes benefit depends on alarm sounding

64

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

65

Detectable Warnings (technical)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

66

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

67

Accessible Courtroom Stations

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

68

Accessible Attorney Areas and Witness Stands

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

69

Raised Courtroom Stations Not for Members of the Public

1.00%

must accounts for the number of users of court houses who would actually use the station; what about # of courtrooms in a courthouse

70

Accessible Route to Exercise Machines and Equipment

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

71

Accessible Exercise Machines and Equipment

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

72

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

73

Accessible Lockers

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

74

Accessible Dressing Rooms, Fitting Rooms, or Locker Rooms

50%

likelihood of using dressing room during facility visit

75

Wheelchair Spaces in Team or Player Seating Areas

0.10%

splits the difference between kids in school (high potential use) and low use for persons in a stadium

76

Accessible Route in Court Sport Facilities

0.10%

splits the difference between kids in school (high potential use) and low use for persons in a stadium

77

Accessible Route to Bowling Lanes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

78

Shooting Facilities with Firing Positions

50%

likelihood of realizing full time savings benefits during visit

79

Primary Accessible Means of Entry to Pools (NC/ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

80

Accessible Means of Entry to Wading Pools

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

81

Accessible Means of Entry to Spas

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

82

Accessible Route to Boating Facilities

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

83

Accessible Boarding Piers (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

84

Accessible Boarding Piers (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

85

Accessible Boat Slips (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

86

Accessible Boat Slips (Alt/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

87

Accessible Route to Fishing Piers

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

88

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

89

Accessible Route to Golf Courses

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

90

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens, and Weather Shelters at Golf Courses (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

91

Accessible Teeing Grounds, Putting Greens, and Weather Shelters at Golf Courses (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

92

Accessible Practice Putting Greens, Practice Teeing Grounds, and Teeing Stations at Driving Ranges

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

93

Accessible Route to Mini Golf Holes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

94

Accessible Mini Golf Holes

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

95

Accessible Route to Amusement Rides

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

96

Wheelchair Space, Transfer Seat or Transfer Device for Amusement Ride

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

97

Maneuvering Space in Load and Unload Area of Amusement Ride

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

98

Signs at Amusement Rides

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

99

Accessible Route to Play Components (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

100

Accessible Play Components (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

101

Accessible Route to Play Components (ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

102

Accessible Play Components (ALT)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

103

Accessible Route to Play Components (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

104

Accessible Play Components (NC)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs; at Restaurants this is assumed to be 2%

106

Post Secondary School Multi-Story Dorm Facility

5%

likelihood of visiting dorm during facility visit

107

Mobility Accessible Prison Cell

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

108

Communication Accessible Prison Cell

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

109

Social Service Establishments – Elevator Access (NC)

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

110

Social Service Establishments – Clear Floor Space around Beds

90%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

111

Accessible Saunas and Steam Rooms (ALT/BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

112

Primary Accessible Means of Entry to Pools (BR)

5%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

113

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Turning Space

90.0%

panelist input probably takes the likelihood of use into account

114

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Work Surfaces

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

115

Secondary Accessible Means of Entry into Pools (NC/ALT)

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

116

Secondary Accessible Means of Entry into Pools (BR)

5.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

117

Social Service Establishments – Roll-in Shower

25.0%

full access time change benefits are realized only when waiting occurs

N. Total Access Time Change per Facility

This table shows the total time change per facility brought about by the applicable requirements change in access time.

New Access Time Current Access time Use time Time Savings / Current Access Time Net Time Change
Inns

4.41

4.58

0.00

4.1%

0.18

Hotels

4.32

4.58

0.00

5.9%

0.26

Motels

4.36

4.58

0.00

5.3%

0.23

Restaurants

0.28

0.29

1.00

7.6%

0.01

Motion Picture House

0.42

0.41

2.25

6.6%

-0.01

Theatre / Concert Hall

1.39

0.00

2.25

4.1%

0.02

Stadiums

0.53

0.61

4.00

23.2%

0.08

Auditoriums

0.51

0.52

2.80

8.1%

0.01

Convention Centers

3.39

3.56

2.00

4.8%

0.17

Single Level Stores

1.03

1.02

0.00

0.5%

-0.01

Shopping Malls

1.60

1.67

0.00

5.8%

0.07

Indoor Service Establishments

1.34

1.34

0.00

1.0%

0.00

Offices of Health Care Providers

1.43

1.44

0.50

1.3%

0.02

Hospitals

5.22

5.29

1.00

4.4%

0.06

Nursing Homes

7.33

7.29

7.00

1.7%

-0.04

Terminal (private airports)

0.77

0.87

0.00

13.6%

0.10

Depot

0.87

0.87

0.00

1.0%

0.00

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

2.30

2.30

1.00

1.7%

0.00

Parks or zoos

3.71

3.89

0.00

5.7%

0.18

Amusement Parks

6.38

6.96

2.00

9.1%

0.59

Nursery schools - Daycare

3.84

3.97

3.50

3.5%

0.13

Elementary Private Schools

3.64

3.97

3.50

8.5%

0.33

Secondary Private Schools

3.86

3.97

3.50

3.4%

0.11

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

3.62

4.06

3.50

11.6%

0.43

Ski Facilities

3.32

3.34

2.00

0.8%

0.02

Homeless Shelter

6.39

6.46

0.00

3.8%

0.07

Food Banks

1.23

1.25

3.00

1.3%

0.02

Social Service Establishments

0.25

0.25

2.00

0.5%

0.00

Exercise Facilities

1.25

1.49

0.50

16.5%

0.24

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

1.61

2.32

1.00

31.1%

0.72

Bowling Alleys

1.22

1.25

0.50

2.8%

0.03

Golf Courses (private public access)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.7%

0.20

Golf Courses (private only)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.9%

0.21

Miniature golf courses

0.78

0.90

1.00

13.9%

0.12

Recreational Boating Facilities

2.34

2.47

0.00

5.8%

0.14

Fishing Piers and Platforms

4.41

4.49

1.00

1.8%

0.08

Shooting Facilities

4.90

4.97

0.50

1.7%

0.07

Office Buildings

0.69

0.69

1.00

1.4%

0.01

Elementary Public Schools

3.78

3.98

3.50

5.1%

0.20

Secondary Public Schools

3.89

3.98

3.50

2.9%

0.09

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

3.55

3.98

3.50

11.6%

0.43

Public Housing

6.45

6.69

6.00

3.8%

0.25

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

2.64

2.71

2.00

2.7%

0.07

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

6.97

7.00

7.00

0.6%

0.03

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

6.86

7.00

7.00

2.2%

0.14

Parking Garages

0.89

0.92

0.00

2.5%

0.02

Self Service Storage Facilities

0.84

0.92

0.00

10.2%

0.08

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

1.39

1.41

2.25

4.1%

0.02

Stadiums (public)

0.54

0.61

4.00

21.3%

0.07

Auditoriums (public)

0.51

0.52

2.80

8.1%

0.01

Convention Centers (public)

3.39

3.56

2.00

4.8%

0.17

Hospitals (public)

5.22

5.29

1.00

4.4%

0.06

Nursing Homes (public)

7.33

7.29

7.00

1.7%

-0.04

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

2.30

2.30

1.00

1.7%

0.00

Parks or zoos (public)

3.74

3.89

0.00

4.8%

0.15

Homeless Shelter (public)

6.39

6.46

0.00

3.8%

0.07

Exercise Facilities (public)

1.30

1.49

0.50

12.8%

0.19

Social Service Establishments (public)

0.25

0.25

2.00

0.5%

0.00

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)

1.74

2.32

1.00

25.3%

0.58

Miniature golf courses (public)

0.78

0.90

1.00

13.9%

0.12

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

2.34

2.47

0.00

5.8%

0.14

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

4.41

4.49

1.00

1.8%

0.08

Office Buildings (public)

1.49

1.50

7.00

0.9%

0.01

Parking Garages (public)

0.89

0.92

0.00

2.5%

0.02

Golf Courses (public)

4.28

4.48

1.00

4.9%

0.21

Restaurants (public)

0.28

0.29

1.00

5.9%

0.01

Amusement Parks (public)

6.42

6.96

2.00

8.5%

0.54

O. Elasticities

The table below shows the elasticities and proxy elasticities used to calculate the generalized use and access cost by facility group. The table also references the sources. The public counterparts of the facilities listed below are assumed to have the same price elasticity of demand.

Facility Reported Elasticity Service or Product Measured in Reported Elasticity Elasticity Used in Model Source (See notes below)
Inns, Hotels, Motels

0.7

Lodging

0.7

1

Restaurants

0.188

Restaurant meals

0.188

2

Motion Picture Houses, Theaters, Concert Halls

0.4

Movies

0.4

3

Theaters, Concert Halls

0.33

Major orchestras

0.33

4

Stadiums

0.338-0.798

Performance tickets

0.568

5

Auditoriums

0.16

Small orchestras

0.16

4

Convention Centers

0.338-0.798

Performance tickets

0.568

5

Single Level Stores

0.285

Food

0.285

6

Multi-level stores

0.713

Clothing

0.713

6

Indoor Service Establishments

1.02

Services

1.02

7

Terminal, depot or other station

0.7

Lodging

0.7

1

Hospitals

0.0161 – 0.0296 – 0.5037

Physiotherapy; General practitioner; specialists // Nursing Homes

0.183

8

Offices of Health Care Providers

0.1690 – 0.2692 – 0.4002

Physician services

0.228

8

Nursing Homes

0.36 – 1.92

Persons with disability private payers of nursing home facility

0.78

9

Museums

0.25

Museums

0.25

10

Parks or zoos

0.297

Zoos and aquariums

0.297

11

Amusement Parks

0.883

Recreation

0.883

6

Social Service Establishments

1.02

Services

1.02

7

Homeless Shelters

0

No demand for homeless shelters

1.02

7

Exercise Facilities

0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Bowling Alleys

0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

6

Golf Courses

1.8

Golf

1.8

12

Recreational Boating Facilities

0.62

Water trips at a State Park

0.62

13

Fishing Piers and Platforms

1.05

Improvements in quality in NC coastal fishing waters

1.05

14

Miniature golf courses

0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

5

Shooting Facilities

0.813

Sporting goods

0.813

5

Day Care Centers & Elementary Private Schools

0.6 – 0.8

Day care (associated with quality)

0.65

15, 16

Secondary Private Schools

0.6 – 0.8

Private education

0.65

15, 16

Undergraduate & postgraduate private schools

0.6

Higher education

0.6

17

Public schools

0.6 – 0.8

Private education

0.65

15, 16

Office Buildings

1.02

Services

1.02

7

State and local government housing

0.30 – 0.80 or 0.67 – 0.72

Housing

0.70

18, 19

State and Local Judicial Facilities

0

No demand for judicial facility visits

0

HDR assumption

State and Local Detention Facilities

0

No demand for detention facility visits

0

HDR assumption

State and Local Correctional Facilities

0

No demand for correctional facility visits

0

HDR assumption

Parking Garages

1.02

Services

1.02

7

Self-storage facilities

1.02

Services

1.02

7

Sources:

1. Hanson, Bjorn (2007). The U.S. Lodging Industry and the Economy, Presentation given at the International Hospitality Industry Investment Conference on June 4, 2007.

2. Brown, Douglas M. (1990). The Restaurant and Fast Food Race: Who's Winning? Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 56, No. 4. 984-995.

3. Corporate Finance Division (2007). A Discussion of Public Policy Revenue Tools under the City of Toronto Act, 2006: www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2007/ex/bgrd/backgroundfile-2052.pdf

4. Luksetich, William A. and Mark D. Lange (1995). A Simultaneous Model of Nonprofit Symphony Orchestra Behavior. Journal of Cultural Economics, 19: 49-68. 49-68.

5. Marburger, Daniel R. (1997). Optimal Ticket Pricing for Performance Goods. Managerial and Decision Economics, Vol. 18, No. 5. 375-381.

6. Nelson, Jon P. (2001). Hard at Play! The Growth of Recreation in Consumer Budgets. Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1. 35-53.

7. Chand, U. K. (1983). The Growth of the Service Sector in the Canadian Economy. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 13, No. 4. 339-379.

8. Hunt-McCool, Janet, B.F. Kike and Ying Chu Ng (1994). Estimates of the Demand for Medical Care under Different Functional Forms. Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 9, No. 2. 201-218.                                                                                                          

9. Reschovsky, James D. (1998). The Roles of Medicaid and Economic Factors in the Demand for Nursing Home Care. HSR: Health Services Research, 33:4.787-813.                        

10. Luksetich, William A. and Mark D. Partridge (1997). Demand Functions for Museum Services. Applied Economics 29. 1553-59.

11. Cain, Louis P and Dennis A. Merritt, Jr. (2006). "The Demand for Zoos and Aquariums," Working paper, Loyola University Chicago and DePaul University.

12. Melvin, Peter and Bobby McCormick: Sportometrics (2002). Technical Report 4: Some Characteristics of Golf in the United States.

13. Bowker, J.M., John C. Bergstrom and Joshua Gill (2004). The Waterway at New River State Park: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences, and Economics, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.

14. Whitehead, John, T. Haab, and Ju-Chin Huang (1999). Measuring Recreation Benefits of Quality Improvements with Revealed and Stated Behavior Data. Journal of Economic Literature, Q26.                                                                                                          

15. Leslie, Larry L. and Paul T. Brinkman (1987). Student Price Response in Higher Education: The Student Demand Studies. Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 58, No. 2. 181-204

16. Campbell, R. and B. Siegel (1967). The Demand for Higher Education in the United States 1919- 1964. American Economic Review, 57. 482-94.

17. Gallet, Craig (2007). A comparative analysis of the demand for higher education: results from a meta-analysis of elasticities. Economics Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7. 1-14.

18. Houthakker, H.S., and L.D. Taylor (1970). Consumer Demand in the United States: Analyses and Projections. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

19. Polinsky, Mitchell and David T. Ellwood (1979). An Empirical Reconciliation of Micro and Grouped Estimates of the Demand for Housing. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 61, No. 2. 199-205.

P. Ease of Access (EOA) Adjustment by Facility

The Ease of Access Adjustment is used when calculating the number of users with disabilities at each facility type; and, when adjusting the demand curve to account for the impact on demand of improved access brought about by the Final Rules.

The EOA is used to account for the fact that, before implementation of the Final Rules, access to some facilities may have been more limited for persons with disabilities than for the general population and that persons with disabilities would, therefore, have visited the relevant facility at a lower rate. The EOA adjustment reflects the estimate of the ratio of the average number of visits per person with disabilities to the average number of visits per person for all adults, adjusted for income. The EOA is applied by multiplying it to an interim estimate of uses by persons with disabilities calculated from total visits by all adults, the portion of adults with disability, adjusted for income. After the Final Rules are implemented, it is assumed that the new EOA is 100.

The ratio between the new EOA and the current EOA is also used to adjust the initial slope of the demand curve to incorporate sensitivity to the change in access resulting from the implementation of the Final Rules. The elasticity for the facility is multiplied by the ratio of the EOAs. Thus, sensitivity to changes in access is higher in those facilities where accessibility had been more constrained prior to the Final Rules. The point (Price, Q0) plus the adjusted slope are the basis of the demand curve used in the calculation of the consumer surplus.

Facility Ease of Access before implementing standards
Inns

90%

Hotels

90%

Motels

90%

Restaurants

90%

Motion Picture House

90%

Theatre / Concert Hall

90%

Stadiums

90%

Auditoriums

90%

Convention Centers

90%

Single Level Stores

90%

Shopping Malls

90%

Indoor Service Establishments

90%

Offices of Health Care Providers

90%

Hospitals

90%

Nursing Homes

90%

Terminal (private airports)

90%

Depots

90%

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

90%

Parks or zoos

80%

Amusement Parks

90%

Nursery schools - Daycare

90%

Elementary Private Schools

90%

Secondary Private Schools

90%

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

90%

Ski Facilities

90%

Homeless Shelter

90%

Food Banks

90%

Social Service Establishments

90%

Exercise Facilities

60%

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

60%

Bowling Alleys

70%

Golf Courses (private with public access)

80%

Golf Courses (private only)

80%

Miniature golf courses

60%

Recreational Boating Facilities

60%

Fishing Piers and Platforms

60%

Shooting Facilities

60%

Office Buildings

90%

Elementary Public Schools

90%

Secondary Public Schools

90%

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

90%

Public Housing

90%

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

90%

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

90%

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

90%

Parking Garages

90%

Self Service Storage Facilities

90%

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

90%

Stadiums (public)

90%

Auditoriums (public)

90%

Convention Centers (public)

90%

Offices of Health Care Providers (public)

90%

Hospitals (public)

90%

Nursing Homes (public)

90%

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

90%

Parks or zoos (public)

80%

Homeless Shelter (public)

90%

Exercise Facilities (public)

60%

Social Service Establishments (public)

90%

Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools (public)

60%

Miniature golf courses (public)

60%

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

60%

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

60%

Office Buildings (public)

90%

Parking Garages (public)

90%

Golf Courses (public)

80%

Restaurants (public)

90%

Amusement Parks (public)

60%

Q.  Requirements with Use Time Estimates

Several requirements also have a use value included in the estimation of benefits when at certain facilities.  When a requirement is instrumental to the use and enjoyment of a facility for its primary purpose (such as watching a movie at a movie theater, or sleeping in a bed and having a shower when at a hotel) the impact of that improved use while at the facility is included in the calculations.  The table below lists those requirements with use value and the facilities at which those use values are calculated.

# Requirement Facilities at Which Use Value Calculated for Requirement
27

Ambulatory Accessible Toilet Compartments

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools; Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

28

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - out swinging door

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Homeless Shelters, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools, Public Housing

29

Shower Spray Controls

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools, Public Housing, Homeless Shelters, State and Local Detention Facilities (jails), State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

30

Urinals

Inns, Motels, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools, Public Housing

32

Water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms - in swinging door

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools

45

Bathrooms with vanities and water closet clearance out-swinging doors

Inns, Hotels, Motels

49

Galley Kitchen Clearances

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools, public housing

50

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

Hotels, Motels, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools, Public Housing, Homeless Shelters, State and Local Detention Facilities (jails), State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

52

Wheelchair Space Overlap in Assembly Areas

Motion Picture House, Theatre/Concert Hall, Stadiums, Auditoriums,  museums, historical sites & libraries, amusement parks, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Secondary Private Schools, Secondary Public Schools, Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools, Theatre/Concert Hall (public), Stadiums (public), Auditoriums (public), museums, historical sites & libraries (public), amusement parks (public)

55

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

Motion Picture House, Theatre / Concert Hall, Stadiums, Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools, Undergraduate, postgraduate private schools, Theatre / Concert Hall (public), Stadiums (public)

62

Assistive Listening Systems (technical)

Motion Picture House, Theatre / Concert Hall, Stadiums, Auditoriums, Convention Centers, Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries, Amusement Parks, Secondary Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Secondary Public Schools, Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools, Theatre / Concert Halls (public), Stadiums (public), Auditoriums (public), Convention Centers (public), Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public), Amusement Parks (public)

71

Accessible Exercise Machines and Equipment

Exercise Facilities, Exercise Facilities (public)

88

Accessible Fishing Piers and Platforms

Parks or Zoos, Fishing Piers and Platforms, Parks or Zoos (public), Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

94

Accessible Mini Golf Holes

Miniature golf courses, Miniature golf courses (public)

100

Accessible Play Components (BR)

Parks or zoos, Amusement Parks, Parks or zoos (public), Amusement Parks (public)

102

Accessible Play Components (ALT)

Parks or zoos, Amusement Parks, Parks or zoos (public), Amusement Parks (public)

104

Accessible Play Components (NC)

Parks or zoos, Amusement Parks, Parks or zoos (public), Amusement Parks (public)

113

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Turning Space

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools

114

Housing at Places of Education – Kitchen Work Surfaces

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Public Schools

R. Examples of Consumer Surplus Calculations

Following are several examples for the calculation of benefits as described in Section 3.2.3.

Example for Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms – In-Swinging Doors in Restaurant Facilities

This section details the benefits resulting from water closet clearance in single-user toilet rooms with in-swinging doors (requirement 32) at restaurants.

First, the estimation of benefits begins with the total number of visits at the facility group (Q0). This estimate is taken from market research estimating that there are 48 billion visits to restaurants annually, which is the equivalent of about 200 visits per average U.S. adult each year, or 4 times a week. The income adjustment (IA) for restaurants (60%) and the Ease of Access (EOA) for restaurants (80%) are applied to this figure.

Q0 visits to Restaurants = 48 billion * 60% (IA) * 90% (EOA) = 26.1 billion visits

Then, to reflect that this requirement is intended to benefit persons using a wheelchair, Q0 is multiplied by that portion of the population, approximately 1.4% of the population.

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 32 in Restaurants = 26.1 billion * 1.4% of population using a wheelchair = 365.4 million visits

Similar calculations for all other requirements in restaurants yield 6.7 billion total visits by visitors with disabilities of all types to restaurants.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is determined next. Data on the total time saved per use is derived from Benefits RAP panel input (in this case, 0.186 hours). The data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by the requirement for water closet clearance is used0.048 times per hour of a visit. The frequency of element uses per visit, for this case, is measured in uses per hour of access time spent at the facility. This is multiplied by the panelists' input on the access time per facility (0.287 hours in restaurants) which equals 0.014 uses per visit. The likelihood of using the element during a facility visit and realizing the full benefits is assumed to be 25%. The likelihood of this element being present in the facility, which is data provided by the Cost RAP panelists, is assumed to be 50%.

At per requirement = Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement =   0.19 hours * 0.014 * 25% * 50% = 0.00033 hours (about 1.2 seconds)

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at restaurants, a total time saved due to all requirements by wheelchair users at a restaurant is computed. This amount, 0.012 hours (42.3 seconds), is due to a total of 8 requirements that affect persons using wheelchairs. This net time savings for persons using wheelchairs at restaurants includes the less stringent requirement for sales and service counters.

The slope (m) of the demand curve for restaurants per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). The resulting figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for persons using wheelchairs = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 32 / C)
= 0.188 * (100% / 90%) * (365.5 million/ $8)
= 9.544 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for restaurants for persons using wheelchairs found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made by current users due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for persons using wheelchairs      = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]
 = 365.5 million + [9.544 million * $17 * 0.012 hours]
367.4 million visits

It is estimated that there are more visits made by persons using wheelchairs because of the net time savings per visit (43.2 seconds).

The value of the time change at restaurants is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to restaurants who could benefit from this requirement (367.44 million visits by people using wheelchairs). Restaurant visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $10/hour, or half of the hourly earnings rate.[3] A VOT premium for the enhanced quality of access time – in this case equal to 100% of the base VOT is added; the resulting total VOT is $20 per hour.

The annual consumer surplus (CS) is computed below per disability and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings. Specifically, the net time change per disability is computed from the time change per visit:

Annual CS per disability category[4] = (Q0 * VOT * At) + ½ (VOT * At) 2 * m
= (365.5 million * $20 * 0.012 hours) + ½ ($20 * 0.012 hours) 2 * 9.544 million
= $87.99 million

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability category)* At / (Net time change per disability category)
 = ($87.99 million * 0.00033 hours) / (0.012 hours)
 = $2.44 million

This facility and requirement are not included in either the use value or the new user benefit estimation.

The present value of benefits is computed over a 40 year planning horizon. Population growth of persons with disabilities is assumed to grow at 0.8%, the same rate as the general population. The present value of benefits equals $6.7 million for requirement 32 in restaurants.

In order to incorporate the uncertainty surrounding the assumptions, estimates, and expectations in the model, high and low estimates are used to bracket the expected, or "most likely" value for many parameters. The ranges of values are used to approximate the full range of possible outcomes. All figures used above are calculated using the "most likely" value for variables in which there are high, most likely, and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

Low High Most Likely

Access time per facility (restaurants) hours

0.19

0.40

0.29

Access time change per element (Req 32) hours

0.03

0.48

0.15

Frequency of use per access hour per element (Req 32)

0.01

0.07

0.05

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 32)

30%

70%

50%

Likelihood of using element (Req 32)

15%

35%

25%

Example for Primary Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Aquatic Centers /Swimming Pools

Another example involves computing benefits from primary accessible means of entry to pools (requirement 79) at privately-owned swimming pool facilities (pools).

It is assumed from data from the Census Bureau's Economic Census that pools collect $4.02 B in sales receipts. It is assumed that the market price per facility visit (C) is $10. This results in 401 million visits to Aquatic Centers/Swimming Pools each year (Sales/Market Price), which is approximately 1 visit per year per average U.S. adult. The number of visits (Q0) to pools is adjusted by the income adjustment of 60% and Ease of Access adjustment of 60%, and then by the percent of persons with ambulatory disabilities, which is approximately 11.9% of the total population.

Q0 visits to Pools = 401 million * 60% (IA) * 60% (EOA) = 144.4 million

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 79 in Pools =
144.4 million * 11.9% of population with ambulatory disabilities =
17.18 million (2.02 million wheelchair users (1.4%) and 15.16 million non-wheelchair users (10.5%)).

Similar calculations for all other requirements at pools yield 37 million visits by persons with disabilities.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is computed using the following: The frequency of element uses is assumed to be uses per visit; the data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by this requirement (the pool) is used on average 2.167 times per visit. The key difference between this calculation and the previous example is that it is assumed that this element is used per visit rather than per hour of access time. Data on total time saved per element is collected from the Benefits panelists (0.27 hours). The likelihood of using the element during a facility visit and realizing the full benefits is assumed to be 50%. The likelihood of this element being present in the facility is assumed to be 80%.

At per requirement = Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement =   0.27 hours * 2.16 * 50% * 80% = 0.235 hours (about 14.1 minutes)

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at pools, the total time saved for persons with ambulatory disabilities is computed. This amount, 0.71 hours (43 minutes), is due to a total of 18 requirements intending to benefit persons with ambulatory disabilities. In this particular case, the time savings for wheelchair and non-wheelchair users are about the same.  

The slope (m)[5] of the demand curve for pools per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). The resulting figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for persons in wheelchairs= ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)
  = 0.813* (100% / 60%) * (2.02 million visits/ $10)
= 0.274 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

m for persons with other ambulatory disabilities = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)
= 0.813* (100% / 60%) * (15.16 million visits/ $10)
= 2.05 million visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for pools for persons with ambulatory disabilities found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for persons in wheelchairs = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]
= 2.02 million + [0.274 million * $10 per hour * 0.71 hours]
= 3.97 million visits

Q1 for persons with ambulatory disabilities  = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]
= 15.16 million + [2.05 million * $10 per hour * 0.71 hours]
= 29.72 million visits

The value of the time change at pools is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to pools who could benefit from this requirement (11.45 million persons with ambulatory disabilities). Pool visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $5/hour (recreational visitors are assumed to have a lower value of time than visitors to other facilities).[6] A requirement-specific access premium of 100% is applied, resulting in a VOT of $10/hour.

Annual consumer surplus (CS)[7] is computed below per disability and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings.

Annual CS per disability = (Q0 * VOT * At) + ½ (VOT * At) 2 * m
 = (2.02 million * $10 * 0.71 hours) + ½ ($10 * 0.71 hours) 2 * 0.274 million
 = $21.25 million

Annual CS per disability = (Q0 * VOT * At) + ½ (VOT * At) 2 * m
 = (15.16 million * $10 * 0.71 hours) + ½ ($10 * 0.71 hours) 2 * 2.05 million
 = $159.31 million

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change forpersons with ambulatory disabilities)
= ($21.25 million + $159.31 million) * (0.235 hours / (0.71 hours)
= $59.76 million

The calculation of benefits for Primary Accessible Means of Entry to Pools (NC/Alt) at Aquatic Centers/Swimming Pools does not include any use value, so in this sense the calculation is the same as the Water Closet Clearance in Single-User Toilet Rooms with In-Swinging Doors in Restaurant Facilities. However, the calculation of benefits for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Aquatic Centers/Swimming Pools has one additional step; because these are new, or supplemental, requirements (as are all play and recreation requirements), they are assumed to have a greater impact on new users. The number and benefits derived from these new users is estimated as follows[8]:

Q'1 for persons in wheelchairs = Q1 + 0.5 *m * [VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime * VOT adjustment]
= 3.97 million + 0.5 * 0.274 millions per dollar * [$10 per hour * 0.71 hours + $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]
= 7.62 million visits

Q'1 for persons with other ambulatory disabilities
= Q1 + 0.5 * m * [VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime* VOT adjustment]
= 29.72 million + 0.5 * 2.05 million per dollar * [$10 per hour * 0.71 hours + $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%]
= 57.02 million visits

The total number of disabled users after the implementation of the Final Rules is then 64.64 million.

Finally, the Annual CS is then adjusted to incorporate the new users as well as the use value, if any.

Annual CS wheelchair= ½ * m *(VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime * VOT Adjustment) 2
= ½ * 274 millions per dollar * ($10 * 0.71 hours+ $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%) 2
= $97.19 million

Annual CS non-wheelchair = (½ * m*(VOT * At + VOT help * UseTime * VOT Adjustment) 2
= ½ * 2.05 millions per dollar* ($10 * 0.71 hours+ $9.34 * 2.324 hours * 90%) 2
= $727.19 million

The consumer surplus assigned to the requirement is then:

Annual CS assigned per requirement = (Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change for persons with ambulatory disabilities)
= ($97.19 million + $727.19 million) * (0.235 hours / (0.71 hours)
= $273.06 million

Annual Consumer Surplus including

New users and Use value  = Annual CS for requirement 79 + New Users + Use Value
= $59.76 million + $273.06 million + $0 million
= $332.8 million

The present value of benefits is computed by discounting the annual benefits over the regulation's lifecycle. Population of persons with disabilities grows with general population. The present value of benefits for requirement 79 at pools equals $497.97 million.[9]

All of the estimations above are based on the most likely values for the variables in which there are high, most likely and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

 

Low

High

Most Likely

Access time per facility (pools) hours

2.20

2.48

2.32

Access time change per element (Req 79) hours

0.09

0.52

0.25

Frequency of use per visit per element (Req 79)

1

4

2

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 79 at pools)

70%

100%

90%

Likelihood of using element (Req 79)

0%

15%

5%

Example for Accessible Means of Entry to Pools at Hotels

Another example involves computing benefits from accessible means of entry to pools (requirement 79) at hotel facilities.

It is estimated from data collected by The American Travel and Lodging Association that there are 639 million visits to hotels made by all Americans annually, or about 2.5 visits per person per year. It is assumed that the market price per facility visit (C) is $150. The number of visits (Q0) to hotels is adjusted by the income adjustment of 60% and Ease of Access adjustment of 90%, and then by the percent of persons with ambulatory disabilities, which is approximately 11.9% of the total population.

Q0 visits to hotels = 639 million * 60% (IA) * 90% (EOA) = 345 million

Q0 visits by those who might benefit from Requirement 79 (pools) in hotels = 345 million * 11.9% of population with ambulatory disabilities = 41.1 million (4.8 million wheelchair users (1.4%) and 36.2 million non-wheelchair users (10.5%))

Similar calculations for all other requirements at hotels yield 88.2 million visits by persons with disabilities.

The time savings (At) brought about by this requirement, on an average visit, is computed using the following: As in the previous example, the frequency of element uses is assumed to be uses per visit; the data collected from the Benefit RAP panelists assumes that the element affected by this requirement (the pool) is used on average 2.16 times per visit, and the time saved per use is 0.27 hours. However, for this facility-requirement time savings, it is assumed that there is a 6% likelihood of using the element and realizing the full benefits and a 72% likelihood of the pool being present in the hotel.

At per requirement = Total time saved per element use * frequency of element uses per visit * likelihood of using element * likelihood of element in a facility

At per requirement =   0.27 hours * 2.16 * 6% * 72% = 0.0246 hours (about 1.4 minutes)

          

Based on similar calculations performed for all requirements at hotels, the total time saved for persons with ambulatory disabilities is computed. This amount is estimated for wheelchair and non-wheelchair users, as 0.23 hours (almost 14 minutes for both type of users), and it is due to a total of 14 requirements intending to benefit persons with ambulatory disabilities.

The slope (m) of the demand curve for hotels per disability is computed, using elasticity for the facility (ε), Ease of Access before (EOA) and after implementation of Standards (EOAn), and the market price (C). This figure represents the change in the number of visits due to a one unit change in price.

m for wheelchair users = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)
= 0.7 * (100% / 90%) * (4.8 million visits/ $150)
= 24 thousand visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

m for persons non-wheelchair users = ε * (EOAn/EOA) * (Q0 for Requirement 79/ C)
  = 0.7 * (100% / 90%) * (36.2 million visits/ $150)
= 188 thousand visits per dollar of change in generalized use and access cost

With the slope of the demand curve for hotels for persons with ambulatory disabilities found, it is possible to determine the new quantity of visits made due to the lower generalized use and access cost (Q1).

Q1 for wheelchair users = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]
= 4.8 million + [24 thousand * $20.00 * 0.23 hours]
= 4.89 million visits

Q1 for non-wheelchair users = Q0 + [m * VOT * At]
= 36.2 million + [188 thousand * $20.00 * 0.23 hours]
= 37.06 million visits

The value of the time change at pools is calculated from the VOT for all visitors to hotels who could benefit from this requirement (37.9 million persons with ambulatory disabilities). Hotel visitors are assumed to have a value of time of $10/hour.[10] A requirement-specific access premium of 100% is applied, resulting in a VOT of $20/hour.

Annual consumer surplus (CS) is computed below per disability group and then apportioned to the requirement based on its time savings.

Annual CS for wheelchair users = (Q0 * VOT * At) + ½ (VOT * At) 2 * m
= (4.8 million * $20 * 0.23 hours) + ½ ($20 * 0.23 hours) 2 * 24 thousand
  = $22.33 million

Annual CS for wheelchair users= (Q0 * VOT * At) + ½ (VOT * At) 2 * m
= (36.2 million * $20 * 0.23 hours) + ½ ($20 * 0.23 hours) 2 * 188 thousand
$168.51 million

Total CS for requirement = (Sum of Annual CS per disability)* At / (Net time change for persons with ambulatory disabilities)
= ($22.33 million + 168.51 million ) * (0.0246 hours) / (0.23 hours)
= $20.41 million

This facility and requirement are not included in either the use value or the new user benefit estimation. The present value of benefits is computed by discounting the annual benefits over the regulation's lifecycle. Population of persons with disabilities grows with general population. The present value of benefits for requirement 79 at hotels equals $159.12 million.

All of the estimations above are based on the most likely values for the variables in which there are high, most likely and low estimates. The following variables in the above example have low and high estimates:

Low High Most Likely
Access time per facility (hotels) hours

4.45

4.90

4.58

Access time change per element (Req 79) hours

0.09

0.52

0.25

Frequency of use per visit per element (Req 79)

1

4

2

Likelihood of element in a facility (Req 79 at hotels)

57.6%

86.4%

72%

Likelihood of using element (Req 79)

0%

15%

5%

Estimation of New Visits

The following is a discussion of the estimated change in the number of total annual visits made to facilities after the 2004 ADAAG is implemented. The estimates below do not distinguish between additional (or fewer) visits by a consumer who has patronized the business at least once before (new visits by existing users) and one who is visiting the facility for the first time (new users). In order to estimate new facility visits brought about by the estimated time savings in accessing facilities, general assumptions are made instead of the more specific assumptions used in the modeling of benefits per requirement and facility.

First, the total annual number of visitors made by persons with disabilities before 2004 ADAAG is implemented (Q0) is estimated. The total annual visits made by the total population by facility type is either from market research or from assuming that the number of total visits is equal to the total sales revenue per industry sector, available from the 2002 Economic Census, divided by an assumed price per visit. The Income Adjustment reflects that as a group, persons with disabilities have a lower average income than the rest of the population. The Ease of Access Adjustment adjusts for the relative difficulty of accessing a particular type of facility. The percentage of the population with disabilities, reported by the U.S. Census is 18 percent.

Q0 = Total Annual Visits made by Total Population * Income Adjustment * Ease of Access Adjustment * Percentage of Population with Disabilities

To arrive at Q1, the new number of total annual visits made by persons with disabilities after the Final Rule, the following assumptions are made:

Q1 = Q0 + (Slope of demand curve * Value of Time * Net Time Change per facility visit)

Where the Slope of the demand curve = Price elasticity of demand per facility visit * (New Ease of Access Adjustment / Current Ease of Access Adjustment) * Q0/Cost of Facility visit

The slope of the demand curve is developed using literature-derived price elasticities for the purchase of goods or services sold at the facilities.

The following table shows the estimated change in the number of visits made by persons with disabilities for each facility type. The column Q0 lists the estimated number of total number of annual visits to each facility type made by persons with disabilities today, before the Standards. The next column, Q1, lists the estimated change in the total number of annual visits made by persons with disabilities after the Standards. It is important to note that the change in number of visits may come from more frequent visits from current users of the facilities or from new users of the facility.

Facility Index Facilities Q0 (millions) Q1 (millions) Q1 - Q0 (millions) % change
A

Inns

42.2

42.8

0.6

1%

B

Hotels

62.2

63.1

0.9

1%

C

Motels

92.9

97.3

4.4

5%

D

Restaurants

4,739.1

4,743.5

4.4

0%

E

Motion Picture House

107.2

107.0

-0.2

0%

F

Theatre / Concert Hall

34.6

34.6

0.0

0%

G

Stadiums

16.8

16.8

0.1

1%

H

Auditoriums

26.0

26.0

0.0

0%

I

Convention Centers

4.5

4.6

0.0

1%

J

Single Level Stores

1,974.1

1,974.0

-0.1

-0.005%

K

Shopping Malls

252.8

253.9

1.0

0%

L

Indoor Service Establishments

2,480.6

2,480.8

0.2

0%

M

Offices of Health Care Providers

194.7

194.7

0.0

0%

N

Hospitals

16.7

16.7

0.0

0%

O

Nursing Homes

122.3

122.2

-0.1

-0.1%

P

Terminal (private airports)

0.1

0.1

0.0

1%

Q

Depots

2.4

2.3

-0.01

0%

R

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries

223.7

224.0

0.3

0%

S

Parks or zoos

7.7

8.4

0.7

9%

T

Amusement Parks

26.0

27.3

1.3

5%

U

Nursery schools – Daycare

327.5

328.1

0.7

0%

V

Elementary Private Schools

86.6

87.0

0.4

0%

W

Secondary Private Schools

16.3

16.3

0.0

0%

X

Undergraduate and Postgraduate Private Schools

87.4

89.0

1.7

2%

Y

Ski Facilities

4.4

4.4

0.0

0%

Z

Homeless Shelter

23.5

24.2

0.7

3%

AA

Food Banks

47.7

47.8

0.2

0%

AB

Social Service Establishments

164.0

164.0

0.0

0%

AC

Exercise Facilities

96.4

107.0

10.6

11%

AD

Swimming pools / Aquatic Centers

26.0

40.4

14.3

55%

AE

Bowling Alleys

17.9

18.2

0.2

1%

AF

Golf Courses (private with public access)

23.7

24.4

0.7

3%

AG

Golf Courses (private only)

5.6

5.7

0.1

2%

AH

Miniature golf courses

33.2

38.8

5.6

17%

AI

Recreational Boating Facilities

2.7

2.7

0.0

1%

AJ

Fishing Piers and Platforms

0.4

0.4

0.0

2%

AK

Shooting Facilities

1.9

2.0

0.0

2%

AM

Office Buildings

12.7

12.8

0.1

1%

AN

Elementary Public Schools

564.0

565.5

1.5

0%

AO

Secondary Public Schools

742.1

743.0

0.8

0%

AP

Undergraduate, postgraduate public schools

2.0

2.1

0.1

4%

AQ

Public Housing

18.0

21.4

3.4

19%

AR

State and Local Judicial Facilities (courthouses)

0.5

0.5

0.0

0%

AS

State and Local Detention Facilities (jails)

2.0

2.0

0.0

0%

AT

State and Local Correctional Facilities (prisons)

150.5

150.5

0.0

0%

AU

Parking Garages

170.6

179.0

8.4

5%

AV

Self Service Storage Facilities

6.2

6.2

0.1

1%

AW

Theatre / Concert Halls (public)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0%

AX

Stadiums (public)

50.3

50.5

0.2

0%

AY

Auditoriums (public)

0.8

0.8

0.0

0%

AZ

Convention Centers (public)

6.8

6.9

0.1

1%

BB

Hospitals (public)

2.9

2.9

0.0

0%

BC

Nursing Homes (public)

11.3

11.3

-0.01

0%

BD

Museums, Historical Sites & Libraries (public)

332.6

333.0

0.4

0%

BE

Parks or zoos (public)

118.9

127.1

8.2

7%

BF

Homeless Shelter (public)

3.4

3.5

0.1

3%

BG

Exercise Facilities (public)

3.1

3.4

0.2

8%

BH

Social Service Establishments (public)

58.7

58.7

0.0

0%

BI

Swimming pools / Aquatic Centers (public)

3.3

4.7

1.4

42%

BJ

Miniature golf courses (public)

1.6

1.9

0.3

17%

BK

Recreational Boating Facilities (public)

3.7

3.7

0.0

1%

BL

Fishing Piers and Platforms (public)

0.4

0.4

0.0

2%

BM

Office Buildings (public)

31.9

32.3

0.4

1%

BN

Parking Garages (public)

1.4

1.4

0.1

5%

BO

Golf Courses (public)

4.0

4.1

0.1

2%

BP

Restaurants (public)

0.2

0.2

0.0

0%

BQ

Amusement Parks (public)

0.4

0.4

0.0

7%

Total

13,695.9

13,770.6

74.6

0.5%

Those facilities where  fewer visitors are expected after the Rule is enacted than currently include motion Picture Houses, single level stores, and depots. In these facilities, the net access time change is negative. The requirements that make up the access time increases for each of these facilities are listed in the table below.

Motion Picture Houses
Req ID Requirement
12

Handrails

38

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

39

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

54

Handrails on Aisle Ramps in Assembly Areas

55

Wheelchair Spaces in Assembly Areas

64

Detectable Warnings (scoping)

66

Assistive Listening Systems (scoping)

Single Level Stores

Req ID

Requirement

30

Urinals

38

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

39

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

Depots

Req ID

Requirement

12

Handrails

30

Urinals

38

Sales and Service Counters (NC)

39

Sales and Service Counters (Alt)

Nursing Homes (public and private)

Req ID

Requirement

12

Handrails

13

Accessible Routes from Site Arrival Points and Within Sites

26

Passenger Loading Zones (Medical / Long-Term Care)

30

Urinals

50

Shower Compartments with Mobility Features

64

Detectable Warnings (scoping)



[1]  Marcus von Wartburg and W.G. Waters II, "Chapter 2: Congestion Externalities and the Value of Travel Time Savings," in Towards Estimating the Social and Environmental Costs of Transportation in Canada, Anming Khang, at al eds. Center for Transportation Studies, University of British Columbia, August 2004. 

[2] Federal Register, Section 5309, "FTA New Starts Criteria," November 12, 1997, Volume 62, number 218, pp 60756 – 69758.

[3] See the Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

[4] The consumer surplus is further adjusted to account for the years that will pass before the full benefits are spilled to users in the form of consumer surplus. The numbers shown in these examples include such adjustments.

[5] Effectively, the consumer surplus for people with ambulatory disabilities is estimated as the sum of the consumer surplus for people in wheelchairs plus the consumer surplus for people with other ambulatory disabilities. This average slope is just a weighted average of the slopes actually use in the estimation.

[6]  See the Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

[7] As mentioned above, the numbers presented here are adjusted to reflect the market consumer surplus at a time when all construction will have been finished.

[8] An adjustment is made on the number of users and the consumer surplus so that the rate of use per disabled users does not exceed the rate of use per non-disabled users. A cap is set to the number of disabled visits per facility in order to attain this purpose. The numbers shown here incorporate this adjustment.

[9] The cost of barrier removal for this requirement is zero and so are the benefits. Then, benefits are obtained only from alterations and new construction. This is why the present value may seem low when compared to the annual consumer surplus.

[10] See Section 4.2.5 and Appendix 4J for details.

 

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